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HARVARD 
COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



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\ 

J METHOD GASPEY-OTTO-SAUER 
I 
OR THE STUDY OF MODERN LANGUAGES 



GULIAN 

ELEMENTARY 

MODERN ARMENIAN 

GRAMMAR 



1ULIUS GROOS. HEIDELBERG 



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ELEMENTARY 

MODERN ARMENIAN GRAMMAR. 



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METHOD GASPE Y - OTTO - SAUER. 



, S ELBMENTARY 

MODERN ARMENIAN GRAMMAR 



/£ 



BY 



KEVORK H. GULIAN/ A. B. 

INSTRUCTOR IN ANATOLI^ COLLEGE 



MAR SO VAN (MERZIFOUN). 




W* 



LONDON. 

DAVID NUTT, 57-69 Long Acre. DULAU & Co, 87 Soho Square. 

SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON A Cc St. Dunstan's House, Fetter 

Lane, Fleet Street. 

NEW YORK. 

BRENTANO'S, F. W. CHRISTERN, E. STEIGER & Co., 
81 Union Square. 254 Fifth Avenue. 25 Park Place. 

BOSTON, 0. A. EOEHLER & Co., 149A Tremont Street. 

HEIDELBERG. 

JULIUS GROOS. 
1902. 



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2>3-bH.^3L 



S 



/^harvard \ 
university 

LIBRARY 
HO/ 101004/ 



The method of Gaepey-Otto-8auer is my own private property, 
having been acquired by purchase from the authors. The text-books 
made after this method are incessantly improved. All rights, espe- 
cially the right of making new editions, and the right of translation 
for all languages, are reserved. Imitations and fraudulent impressions 
will be proseouted according to law. I am thankful for communi- 
cations relating to these matters. 

Htidtlherg. JuliUB CtTOOS 



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Contents. 



Page 

Alphabet 1 

Pronunciation 2 

Tonic Accent 8 

Punctuation 4 

Lesson 1. Indefinite Article 4 

„ 2. Definite Article 5 

„ 3. Plural of Nouiir G 

„ 4. The partitive Sense 8 

„ 5. Declension of Nouns; First Declension .... 9 

„ 6. Second Declension 11 

„ 7. Postpositions 12 

„ 8. Third Declension 14 

„ 9. Law of Permutation and Elision 15 

„ 10. Fourth Declension 17 

„ 11. Fifth Declension 18 

„ 12. Sixth Declension 19 

„ 13. The Auxiliary Verb If W I am 20 

„ 14. Determinative Adjectives; Demonstrative Ad- 
jectives 22 

„ IB. Irregular Declensions 24 

„ 16. Possessive Adjectives 26 

„ 17. Proper Nouns 28 

„ 18. Formation of Female Appellations 31 

3 „ 19. Numeral Adjectives; Cardinal Numbers .... 34 

^ „ 20. Ordinal Numbers 87 

^ „ 21. Indefinite Adjectives 40 

Hi » 22. Adjectives 42 

„ 23. Degrees of Comparison 46 

„ 24. Regular Verbs; First Conjugation 49 

„ 25. Second Conjugation 58 



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VI 

Page 

Lesson 26. Third Conjugation 56 

„ 27. The negative Forms of the Verbs 58 

„ 28. Pronouns 61 

„ 29. Demonstrative Pronouns 63 

„ 80. Possessive Pronouns 65 

„ 81. Indefinite Pronouns 69 

„ 82. Passive Verbs 72 

„ 38. Impersonal Verbs 74 

„ 84. Irregular Verbs; First Class 75 

„ 35. Irregular Verbs; Second Class 78 

„ 36. Adverbs; Adverbs of place, Adverbs of time . 81 

„ 87. Adverbs of quantity etc 81 

„ 38. Derivative Adverbs 86 

„ 89. Conjunctions 89 

„ 40. Interjections 91 

„ 41. Defective Verbs 92 

„ 42. The Participle 95 

„ 48. Some derivative verbs 99 

„ 44. Apposition, Vocative etc 102 

Appendix. 

I. Selection of useful words 105 

II. Phrases for Armenian Conversation 119 

III. Beading Exercises 

A. Prose 134 

B. Poetry 152 

IV. Vocabulary 

A. Armenian-English 167 

B. English-Armenian 185 



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I have begun, and am proceeding in the study 
of the Armenian language . . . 

It is a rich language, and would amply repay 
any one the trouble of learning it. 

Lord Byron. 



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Armenian Writing Alphabet. 



1*0X1118 


Names 


Pronunciation 


Forma 


Names 


Pronunciation 


1/L. 


aip 


a in father 


«/> 


men 


m 


Ft 


pen 


P 


3* 


he 


h or y 


<M 


kim 


k 


%,\ 


noo 


n 


fa. 


tah 


t 




shah 


sh 


t; 


yetch 


ye in yes 


Tin 


vo 


vo or o 


% 


zah 


z 


9 


chah 


ch in c/*arm 


U 


a 


a in fat 


"/«; 


bay 


b 


Ke- 


yet 


u in t/s 


4* 


chay 


ch in r/iarm 


pt 


toh 


t 


7h~ 


rrah 


r Scotch 


J* 


zhay 


s in measure 


Z/„, 


say 


s 


<-/>/. 


inni 


e in me 


U 


vev 


V 


■&>& 


lune 


1 


M r 


dune 


d 


H 1 


khay 


ch German 


vV 


ray 


r 


£-> 


dzah 


dz 


2? 


tso 


ts 


W 


ghen 


g hard 


Vfc* 


hune 


u or v 


4/t 


ho 


h 


*>+ 


pure 


P 


2> 


tsah 


ts 


m 


kay 


k 


%% 


ghad 


y Greek 


o. 








It 


jay 


J 


fit 


fay 


f 



^ is a contraction for A* 



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Alphabet. 

The Armenian alphabet consists of 38 letters, viz. 



09 

•43 
ft 

eS 


X 

a> 


Name 


Proper sound 


U 


cir 


a'ip as in ripe 


a as in far 


P* 


F 


pen 


P 


H- 


t 


kim 


k 


^ 


* 


tah 


t 


1? 


lr 


yech 


y as in yet 


A 


t 


zah 


z 


t 


k 


a 


e as in met 


a 


a 


yet 


u as in us 


p- 


P 


to 


t 


* 


<L 


zhay 


s as is measure 


b 


A 


ini 


i as in Jin 


u 


L 


lune 


1 


h- 


£ 


kh 


kh guttural; Greek/ 


Yr 


^ 


dzah 


dz 


'i 


* 


ghen 


g hard 


A 


<J 


ho 


h 


2 


A 


tsah 


ts 


•L 


%. 


ghad 


gh guttural ; Greek y 


rf 


rf 


jay 


J 


IT 


«T 


men 


m 


8 


J 


he 


h or y 


*b 


% 


noo 


n 


t 


L 


shah 


sh 


n 


" 


vo 


vo or o 


Eleme 


ntafy Ar 


menjan Grammar. 


i 



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Pronunciation 



1 


-*3 

H 

o 


Name 


Proper sound 


o 








a 


*_ 


chah 


ch as in church 


«n 


If 


bay 


b 


* 


z 


chay 


ch as in church 


n* 


n. 


rrah 


r Scotch 


u 


u 


say 


s 


*u 


t 


vev 


V 


s 


u. 


dune 


d 


p 


r 


ray 


r 


8 


a 


tso 


ts 


h 


*. 


hune 


u or v 


* 


* 


pure 


P 


* 


■e 


kay 


k 


o 


© 


o 





* 


* 


fay 


f 



The original alphabet consisted of 3G letters, 
O and q» were added during the twelfth century. 

L is a contraction for **. (yev). 

Of the above letters «*, *, 4# ^# />, », *. and • 
are vowels, the rest are consonants. 

IV- # *y> * m * *°» **-» /"-> "*- an( i V are compound 
vowels. 



l>us t fck 9 fi»i fo 9 fin 

and kfi are diphthongs. 



*-A» —■&$ ***•*% 



•t kn | kn 



y ^ Pronunciation. 

L h* when it begins a word and is followed by a 
consonant, is pronounced like ye in yet, as *£- I; 
elsewhere followed by a consonant it is like e in met, 
as $trp hair; followed by a vowel it is simply y, as 
t i t, t »\e gyanh life. 

It is not used at the end of words. 
K x Greek and %, y Greek are deep gutturals, 
and the pronunciation of them must be acquired 
through the ear. - 



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Accent. ti ^.3 

8 is h at the beginning of words, as 6"^ "/* Ja&ob ; 
elsewhere it is y, as <J«*//t Aire father, *«/" ayo yes ; this 
letter retains the sound of h in compound words in 
which the latter part is a word beginning with j f as 
l/"VV" U-a-hooys hopeful, compounded of ^ fiitt and 
j»j» hope. At the end of words it is silent, as *>*»«***%•»} 
sadanah Satan, J!rpk%»y mekenah machine. The fol- 
lowing nine words are the exceptions to this rule: 
"0 0!, p»y verb, phj tea, fa?/ ram, Z,y Armenian, 
*'V jay, >vy fairy? lav wo - and % ™J liquid (letter). 

n is vo at the beginning of words, as «ff/ vorti 
son, except when followed by £, as »£ ov who?; 
elsewhere it is o, as {»£ gov cow, %»p nor new. 

n«- is oo, as ««-£_ oo? kid, ——.% doon house; but it is 
pronounced v before a vowel, as u«m£^ asdvadz God. 

flj is simply o at the end of words, as V{/ no 
Noah, fy^iv yerego evening; but in the middle of a 
word it becomes ooy, as w looys light, ^yp kooyr sister. 

h L is eev before a vowel or at the end of a word, 
as p-f*. feev number, t^i«^«/» teevahar possessed of 
devils; elsewhere it is u French, as ty«-fc tsune snow. 
In any other combination, «- is v, as <>««- hav hen, 
%rf»£.u»mf» / »«r navadorm navy. 

The remaining letters are uniform in their pro- 
nunciation, and need no remark. 

When two or more consonants come together 
without a vowel, they are pronounced as if written 
with c. • as Wfcw/'i. Baptist is pronounced «£fci»«"M' In 
the case of primitive words commencing with one of 
the sibilants ^, u « preceded by only one consonant, 
this euphonic /» is generally pronounced as if written 
before the sibilant, as 1$. •—*— sober, ^? ,uu l haste, ««•»«»{ 
money, pronounced as if written ^f»«», tvr mu l an d 

nuuntuh • 

Tonic Accent. 

The tonic accent in Armenian stands on the last 
syllable, whether the word be primitive or derivative, 
except when the word end in £ ; in this case the tonic 
accent is thrown back on the penultimate, as faA-ifa 
the knife, it"»t/ i rc. ^he news-paper. 






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4 . Lesson 1. 

Punctuation. 

The pauses used in Armenian are three, viz. 

Comma (■), Colon (.), Period («). 

The note of interrogation (*) is placed over the 
accented vowel of the principal word in the question. 
Accordingly in the question, Have you an orange? the 
interrogation point may be placed over any one of 
the words of which it is composed in Armenian; thus, 
«h«4j» %u* r /,%£ Jfc »i.%fip 9 Have you an orange? 1***^ 
%u* r [r%£ Jfc »*.%fi£, Have you an orange? 'bA^ *«y/ft£ 
J£ »i-%f>.p t Have you an orange? 

The exclamation point (') in like manner, is placed 
over the accented syllable of interjections, or of other 
words used as exclamations, or uttered with emotion, 
as um-u^ alas! U^/««^ U«- ?**.*-% Sweet Auburn! /^«, 
f*«Tl£, light! life! 

Sentences, which contain a mark of interrogation 
or exclamation, have still their appropriate pauses at 
the close, in the same way as other sentences. 

The hyphen ( — ) is placed at the end of a line, 
where a word is incomplete. 

The acute accent ('), though it is placed upon 
the tone syllable of words, has for its object to mark 
rather emphasis than accent. 

The grave accent ( % ) indicates a brief suspension 
of the voice. It is placed after words, and is in effect 
of a pause shorter than a comma. 

The remaining signs of punctuation being the 
same as in English, need no further explanation. 

First Lesson. 



Indefinite Article. 

The indefinite article a, an is expressed in Ar- 
menian by «£ or «£fc, and uniformly follows the noun 
to which it belongs. 

The -£ becomes Jjfo when followed by «*£. too, 
also, tr<r I am, k*> thou art, k he, she or it is, **^ we 
are, kg you are, tt» they are; kfi I was, kfo thou wast, 
k? he was, kf>kp we were, khg you were, kjfc they were. 



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Article. 
Words. 1 ) 



fart Jfr a rose. 
tyutvrni. jj^ a, cat. 

V«? a horse. 
ki_ «£ an ass. 
b%_ *£ an ox. 
^nA jfc a dog. 

Sing. (*»)*) ««-ty«T I have. 
(^ift%) nth/,,, thou hast. 
(,$$%) **.%£ he, she or 
it has. 



ttw 


J? a 


book. 


trtt 


JJl a 


pen. 


uuitnln 


« ^ 


a pencil, 



tf'L "C a spoon. 
uyn yes. «£. no. 
—kp sir. *«., »«_ and. 
Plur. (Jtotp) n*xpiq> we have. 
(f--^) »&[ip you have. 

(nshnttn} nu%[$% they 

have. 



Exercise 1. 

iil. &+ Jf* nub^bpt <y>u/btul( tlh nuhftpx \jP *fi* nCbftlit 1^/M» 
tfj^ nubfSut fl'^, ?-/»/&£_ tPp_ nt-ufitTt Qft t/fc ntlififet \\jn 9 St/»» 
t%_ «&tr uta ntlhfiUox ^a.tut tfit niSbfr i fl'« f nutbutlf Jrt nt-hfu 
%?[*£_ Jh nLbft %t Wjii) Jut tn [tut Jnh tut ni\tfiti t $ntli JpU fct 

Translation 2. 

I have a pen. We have a dog. They have a book. 
Have you an ass? No, Sir, I have a horse. Has he an 
ox? Yes, he has also a cow. She has a rose. They 
have a cat. Thou hast an orange. It is a hen. It was 
a machine. You have a son. 

Second Lesson. 



Definite Article. 8 ) 

The definite form of nouns is produced by adding 
£ to the simple form when the latter ends with a 
consonant, and % when it ends with a vowel, as: 

tf.nt.n. door. f.»«.«-£ the door. 



-th key. 



fuiutjfii the key. 



f ) These words as well as those contained in the preceding 
rules must be thoroughly committed to memory, before doing the 
exercises and translations. 

2 ) Observe that a paranthesis (. . .) encloses a word to be 
translated or an annotation, whereas brackets [. . .] signify 
'leave out'. 

s ) The article should be repeated after each substantive of 
a sentence. For the partitive sense see the 4 th lesson. 



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6 Lesson 3. 

Nouns ending in silent j drop that letter in 
their definite form, which is formed by adding % , as : 

—TV boy. -qus\ the boy. 

wfffLUfj tooth. t ui[,uu.\ the tooth. 

The % is added also to nouns followed by «*- and, 
um L also, too, -%fS even, fi»4 too; *«/* lam, *« thou 
art, k he is, l*\g we are, 4^ you are, *% they are; 4£ 
I was, kfo thou wast, 4/t he was, 4^p we were, 4/^? 
you were, 4^*» they were. 



$*vcc the father. 


fords. 

«*«- (sev) black. 1 ) 


«/«2//Y» the mother. 


tfkpJuif white. 


*"WVrii the brother. 


p>»rb good. 


T-nuuvpi. the daughter. 


«*^4^ well, good. 


7-^ir the wine. 


tki_ bad. 


^uM^us'isiu'h the priest. 


2^/» naughty, bad 



Exercise 3. 

pwpfi n Plf? dh atA/tt \jqff nt. tynifci iflrpiliufy £lr i ^pfitff at - 
Jmmftian u»qk% h'hx ^{yipl* mt mt {k^ 4« *|»/M^tr ^tupi^ip (red) 

4y» < *$ypi» «»*- ^qp-'Y/pp t!fV ^ * C/"-^7* **^*- 4* • UL C /'' » £*»*-Mr ««- 

fyuiuintUb uLl. trhi £qui% puipfi £t 

Translation 4. 

The mother has a good daughter. Have they a 
red rose? Yes, Sir, they have also a white rose. Is 
the daughter beautiful? Even the mother is beautiful 
(t^'z^M)- The door and (the) key are bad. The son 
has a knife and (a) spoon. It is the orange. 

Third Lesson. 



Plural of Nouns. 

The plural is regularly formed by adding to 
monosyllables fy, to words more than one syllable 
Mp# as: 

') Adjectives, as in English, are undeclined, except when 
used as substantives. This part of speech is fully treated in 
Lesson 22. 



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Plural of Nouns. 7 

Sing. *»j— cheek. Plur. «y*\>t cheeks. 

#t>p- nose. #tPh noses. 

um\u,%£ ear. m^m%f}\f ears. 

""ilfrk girl* «"LlH x lt girls. 

Nouns ending in silent j drop that letter in the 

plural, as: 

l^"-i'»j market. ^$.^1^ markets. 

4trf„t» n %L W j Christian. %p / r/«#m#»fc*«»tt P Christians. 

Compound words in which the latter part is 
monosyllable, form their plurals by adding fy, as: 
w^lriu,!- steam-ship. 2»+lr%-i\r t steam-ships. 

j-$y[tu*t»nt.% school-house. ^.«y^u#«wf»t.irtj. school-houses. 

Words (/u»«.fy). 

^IL"-^P ^ ie head. ufcntA pretty. 

>»14>C the eye. "**t u gty\ 

«^}*/"«(l the pupil. ftu%H»»tkf diligent. 

m.tr»/fe„2i» the student. *-«/{_ lazy, idle. 

nLum-gfttz the teacher. f-Ti. g re y* 

fu%Jinp£ the apple. ^.A^fr* yellow, 
^mm^iff/yt the writing-book. p-.fr brown. 

Ju$ etp. the man. p«yg but. ^">'£. what? 

Exercise 5. 

\**lb£_ nubfip x \ 7 u fyuipjftp fttb&rtpbtrpft f»t_tr^«/*t Jflgmfirpm* 
%kpp /5^£_ nLbfthx {flinty* ttPft^PP* tPtt^^PIL ^ rtm f-P"""^*"^ 
P^PP ntfbphx Xktil'ip iftrpJiufy tu£n.utbirp f tfUMpifftp uijutlrp bu 
ftnt-fu ui£j>trp na.%fiz \Jbinp1tlrpp tytupJfip b% f puijg'huipftb^ 
Tilrpp rj.tr qfiti trht i\^iuprj.lrpti uib fyutpJffp kfi»* fl'^J uAtnbp 
TflrpJiufy fcflti t ^nq.h%uti.lrpn Jbp&lbuAitrp nubfiUt {\t-iiuibntjhlrpp 

Translation 6. 

The teachers have many (£«•«") school-houses. The 
doors have many keys. The sister has pretty eyes and 
white teeth. Have you the horses? No, Sir, I have 
the asses and (the) cows. What have the teachers? 
They have the diligent students. Asses have big 
(fr>»znp) ears. The mothers are ugly, but the daughters 
are prettjr. 



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Fourth Lesson. 



The partitive Sense. 

The idea conveyed by some or any before a noun 
employed in the partitive sense, is expressed in Ar- 
menian by the mere word, without any article, both 
in the singular and plural. Ex: 

Sing. A^s bread or some Plur. hru,^%k c flowers, 
bread. 
^U0 F U0^. (some) butter. "yMp goats. 

*"hb gold. Htf,u*p%lrp sheep. 

ui P hru.p- silver. ^mm.^/t-m^ eggs. 

JkfuA (some) ink. fa&e V l S 3 ' 

This form (without article) is also emploj r ed after 
nouns importing measure, quantity and weight] nor is the 
English prepositon of then translated in Armenian. Ex. : 

y.u*t.,»p- J? unup€ a cup of 4£-i_ «£ f^w a pound of 



coffee. 






cherries. 


zfl. 'Qt *t % b a bottle of wine. 
ujuiuiiun- jj± ^m#0 a slice of 
bread. 


HPJt **& k°l£k & V Rlv °f shoes, 
of pens. 


Sing. (i»») **&kfi 
hadst. 


I had. 
Wfo thou 


Plur. («AV) * A klke we had. 
(f"&) nL ^h^ you had. 


(«<)rj NU%kp 


he had 




(«fftrff^) nulti/,% they 
had. 






Words. 


«y«i»^ff cheese. 
Jfcu meat. 
1—-P water. 
t-p- milk. 
2*ig—p sugar. 
u"l_ salt. 






tHt-jujuy stocking. 

Xbn.%ng gl0V6. 

ft$ufhui^ glass, cup. 

^uigutfu vinegar. 

,, p | will you have? 
H—~'L*g J ( j y 0U w i s h? 


"tVH^'l. pepper. 
^np piece, bit. 






tf Ln 1 I will have. 
♦"^i-Iwish. 



' Exercise 7. 

\)U ^wg £ri If ut [i us if. ni-lkfit ftfbnltp aufyfi trc atpbuifl ««-» . 



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Partitive Sense — Declension of Nouns. 9 

Jiitutfitn ^'nt-abiTi <\+iut-t*[3- t/pfity m.tr^jps f|> » S^/'t f-i"*-ua[3- tip 
unt-plk nt-lfitTt \\*b ujuiutusn. tip ^uiij Irt. Lump Jp luu/bftp nuUt?p t 

tJ-[&[* Lrc fyutnp tip Jpu fy'nt-atrtTt WypP Jt^P *0* t"b&np ntX^rp t 

Translation 8. 

What has the daughter? She has a pair of gloves. 
Who ("£ ov) has [some] sugar? We have [some] sugar 
and milk. Will you have a glass of water? No, I will 
have a glass of wine and a slice of cheese. The 
teacher has a pair of shoes. The fathers have pigs 
and goats. The brothers had a dozen eggs. Who lias 
many flowers? The man has a pound of cherries. 

Fifth Lesson. 



Declension of Nonns. 

There are in Armenian six cases: 
the Nominative n*-?^}* 1 * • 
the Accusative z,uygm\m%. 
the Genitive u*«-#*ftiA. 

the Dative $?-%-%. 

the Ablative ^mgtmm.mf u,% . 

the Instrumental «!.«/»&/«» }«»fc . 

These cases present only four distinct forms, the 
Accusative being (in nouns though not in pronouns) 
the same with the Nominative, and the Dative with 
the Genitive, both in singular and plural, and in order 
to distinguish them in the sentence, we must ask the 
following questions: 

for the Nominative 'who'? or 'what'? 
„• „ Accusative 'whom'? or 'what'? 
„ „ Genitive 'whose'?, 'of whom'? or 'of which'? 

„ „ Dative 'to whom'? or 'to which'? 

„ „ Ablative 'from whom'? or 'from which'? 

„ „ Instrumental 'with whom'? or 'with what'? 

There are six regular declensions, the first of which 
presents the most usual mode and comprises the 
greatest number of nouns. 



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10 Lesson 5. 

First Declension. 

a) without article (monosyllable). 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. and Ace. fart rose, farter roses. 
Gen. and Dat. fapti of or fapt^t m " of or to roses. 

to rose. 
Abl. fapt^ from rose. fanh^ from roses. 

Inst. fact m L with rose. fanh-i. with roses. 

b) with the definite article 1 ) (polysyllable). 

Nom. and Ace. -p»*-p the t*p-»*.%l'[£ the chairs. 

chair. 

Gen. and Dat. -p--n}% of -p-um.%\. t n~% of or to the 

or to the chair. chairs. 

Abl. u»p- n m.]fl, from the chair -p-u.%^% from the chairs. 

Inst. u,p- u *.nfe with the •»/?»«&};»{£ with the chairs. 

chair. 

Remarks. 

1. Nouns ending in «• preceded by a consonant 
add j in the oblique cases of the singular. Ex.: 

Nom. and Ace. tyA«£. climate Abl. iu£«o»j6. 

„ „ „ Of*- Sinai. „ U^^t. 

Gen. and Dat. U/A«%^* Inst. i|/A-&y"£« 

2. The possessor must in Armenian precede the 
object possessed, and the article is to be added to 
both. Ex. : 0w«^.««*-##/»/&i t'^t. ^ e king's throne, hitf-ty 1 
-pq-l^ the prince's son, utp-n.%kpuiX m^Ap^the chairs' feet. 

Words. 
bu*m.£ the tree. im——.$m%£ the window. 

«t4flr<.£ the leaf. faf't'Utu ^ e curtain. 

puMpk^uiJ^ the friend. «»«.;»£ the sword. 

p-m-imtXn the bird. .y*«.-iAi«A£ the sheath. 

fa'u^utfe the cage. «Y a 'C" , ^ic the garden. 

friu/Uf-Pf* the shop. *"»/• new. ^•n/wm palace. 

*£*2i! the branch. ^fy, ^» old. *»"«-/» give 

(thou). 



') For the indefinite article see the 1st lesson. 



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2. Declension. 11 

Exercise 9. 

^.uiptrtftuJfib K^/PP bbp £t Wjutfytrputfib Jbauubp uLl. 4"» 
}^nL.pbpni!b u^uttnhtuliblrppt fd%n £nuUpti Jmun-tvty&u t ^ni-truttffb 
pt§s$bni.paua pl^h % f\t.utmunqplb ttuttnttumJp^X fiiprurlrAlr ututtututulrpp 
unp tffht |»*lr^_ t[nt-akj>i \\wptlfip ifutpq.pt utlrpttLbtrpp Q'ni-*. 
obtTt <Hi**pui£-qfrb &utq[ttfUlipni?b (Dat.)* fkni-qflnt/ trt. v%-£ut+. 
unifjt G\utuint-^u/uf!u &fptua.njpn ^fli t* ^uttf-tub Jp fn*-p utnt^p 
ft up putpultmufihx 

Translation 10. 

The king's palace is new. The prince's daughter 
has a pair of white gloves. From the branches of the 
trees. With the machines. Give the eggs to the 
teachers. Give a cup of milk to the friend. The pupil's 
father has a black dog. They have a dozen bottles. 
From the curtains of the windows. She had the bird's 
cage. With the soldier's (2AW.#yi-zinvor) sword. 

Sixth Lesson. 



Second Declension. 

This declension includes the nouns, excepting the 
monosyllables, ending in \% which make the Gen. and 
Dat. singular') in — y to. Ex.: 

Singular, 
a) witJiotit article. b) with (lie definite article. 

Nom. and Ace. m^krmkr 9 f np^/X the son. 

church. 
Gen. and Dat. H*f*j--j "/"!-— v 1? ) of or to the son. 

of or to church. 
Abl. Htmtgft from church. »pt4b x from the son. 
Inst, ^f^^f^-iwith church. n rtt m {z, with the son. 

Words. 
npp.uuibqf, sanctuary. lf,p^h%f, olive-tree. 

f-puttf/i neighbour. mpJuM^lA^ date-tree. 

<;»j/ soul. W'hii^db Englishman. 

1 ) In the other cases of the singular and throughout the 
plural, they are uniform with the l^t declension. 
*) See the pronunciation of «yt 



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12 



Lesson 7. 



J$»0ui$u%l> ring. 
uu$u limb. 
ftt*»quq_ grape. 
fWf^ inhabitant. 
*»£/» lord, owner. 
«Y<#v»c^ fruit. 
P'»r*r (• • • l cr) high. 



«Vf/ vineyard. 
f^ island. 
fir%q.m%fi animal. 
-ymAfr pigeon. 
fo^pin.% salvation. 
+njb colour. py* nest. 
yut%^.ut^Mn*$*.% belfry. 

Exercise II. 

\ffylrnbgi_njh qusha.iuLuiinat.lbn paipip t % * Jfrppiutnir qunjU 
i£iuputa.njnulrpn B-bntrnfify hut (\u£t.nju a-njbp ti.tr qfth £s \\b%^ 
tj.iubi.njb ninoirpp Luip7& (sllOrt) tpb* *\*puint.njb q.nt.uutpp ^"fl 
kpt Z^rta.L.njh tfrf$fyni-Pfu.%ni f\qust.ut.nfu pn/bpunp k * flp n ~ t -ty u 
pusplrlfusJrt fln.^ai.'b djt Itl. tiu»%n.u»L tip nt-ukp t \*u£_ ^ 'nt.ak.fi » 
|^|t «/«/«. fflri-jytr nuutp irt Ahfi-a%i.njh iutnat-ttQ L at-qiriPt 

Translation 12. 

The lord of the vineyard was a good man. The 
son's teacher had a pretty rose. Give [some] grass 
(I**-) to the animal. The inhabitants of the island 
were rich ($tupu*.um). "What will you have? I will have 
the keys of the church. The neighbour's house was new. 
The horses of the Englishman were brown. The owner 
of the ring is a rich man. 

Seventh Lesson. 



Postpositions. 

Only a few prepositions are retained from the An- 
cient and used in the Modern Armenian; the rest are 
postpositions, since they uniformly follow the nouns or 
pronouns which they govern. 

a) Postpositions governing the genitive: 

7 m.ff.^ir ~*-ft~ before the door. 
mui.%1,% tft- behind the house. 
m^m^irpmfim ^t-/ again st the pupil. 
u k%ku*t i l>% 4-£ %n the room. 
^.ktnfiit *«. .puttjuipfb 4fl"" hehveen the 
river and the town. [and black. 
frut-fuf, *«_ uhuf, 4*£*»4i. between brown 



turn-fin. before. 
Ir—mi. behind. 
7-4«r against. 
Jk£ in. 

^^Jbetween. 



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Postpositions. 13 

4p-y on, upon. * tr i««l 1L »%f.h {t~j on the desk. 
«»•«{ under. „^„ty*, *»-{ under the table. 

j,»j_ | nea . r# wrf* * m i near the hill. [waters. 

\ beside. {«Af7« f»ij»*fm* >.£ ieswfc the still 

-»*t instead of. »w-»fr •rl-tt instead of the son. 

£«M/i round, a — . ^^^^ t— rL rowndf the garden. 

6^ Postpositions with the dative: 

u.n.u.% a (prep.) —- .Xj, pvplfatf jfc without a friend. 

without. 

<J«/«/^ r for. #ft.«.^/i.^ $«./~ r y r the student. 

^£«» with. tv m 3'-v % *L+ «*& the neighbour. 

<Tom near. rhiP' *+ near the village. [tree. 

«f4* like, as. terib nfr* KA« a rose. &--.[> -fc» as a 

c) Postpositions with the ablative: 

1*>- or f fu^n Ifckfk'u \ i*.* besides the horses. 

besides. 

T nt r out of. j*'»i'»pfr f •""f ^^ of the city. 

<J £«.„«_ far from. «fm.fc£% £(.*.•- yar /rom home. 

d,) Postpositions with the accusative: 

rH J (prep.) ft-i f ^"^ towards the sea. 

towards. 

^ £«7* down. f.*mfc J £» r efown the river. 

^ #/» up. ihn.% \ # r up the mountain. 

Remark. 

Where the prepositions in, at^ to or tnfo are used 
iu English, we employ very often a simple accusative, 
especially with verbs indicating a state of rest or denoting 
a direction or motion from one place to another. Ex. : 

^"^^ Ht-tt-jP' k the priest is in the church. 
-"0te n m * r»-C-.to £ the girl is a£ the window, 
•"l^ fir** V^rP-u the boy goes fo school. 
^"rtc £--ft /M* - "- the man fell twfo the water. 
nt.»»*.jfili,ljX+m\ fe fTu^f, the teacher lives in London. 
bum.!; >«». from tree to tree. 

Words. 

k-j there is. JU«.fe» the fish (sing.). 

f-* there are. if^^uJ^^ the inkstand. 

f"Y» there was. lyw^ the wall. 

k m jt % there were. fmt/Rt/ffc the bridge. 



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14 Lesson 8. 

Exercise 13. 

P»n.£M.tr i/n Lun Ju/linuiLfiU Jkf* <\*ut%uaL Jr$ Lun ulr*. 
nuApif mml^x f^g/tt/r iru$n.fii rfpuy k* \lj9-ffcbfin apunfilb tfout 
k(>%* I*"" dh ff^C ujwpwtqfju pnt-pf* ^utnu*p[iu Ir*- itrnfiu 
u%0mirq^ if. but Jrt fytupt ^np \?Oflp{i tri. ^/>"< s P//fr^ JftOjrt. ^njtu*. 

Lutui (grand) ^u»Jhi.pftni fy*y* W^pi-p o-p ut ^ t -^fi ^t*w u yt-f^ t 

(to) i'^fftivj* \ t uii-usuui[»'b (sailor) knife /th^iuut Xptuutujlbfth 
Djbflpw/Jt-'yb ^uidutp tt \\utu»uSh (Satail) filt q-td** tywnp 

(glory) ^ jir-b t #/" 

Translation 14. 

The mother was [at] the window. There was a 
dish of meat upon the table. The bird's nest is on 
the tree. The ship goes down the river. There was 
[some] ink in the inkstand. The prince lives [in] 
Berlin (^^r/^). The preacher (^T'i^lfi) g° es [t°] the 
church. He is far from home. She went (**«»#) out of 
the school-house without permission (<£/•«**&#&). Besides 
the roses there was also a lily (i—-]^). 

Eighth Lesson. 

Third Declension. 

This declension contains a few nouns, chiefly 
monosyllables, which make the Gen. and Dat. singular') 
in •-. Ex,: 

Singular. 

a) Without article. b) With the definite article. 

Nom. and Ace. *-«£ sea. «»^t ft the sun. 
Gen. and Dat. *-»£- of or mfk*.»*\ of or to the sun. 

to sea. 
Abl. *-«# from sea. «pK(.x from the sun. 

Inst. *-»£{. with sea. «npfr«.»{£ with the sun. 

Such are: Z,»y Armenian. $.»» class. ±*—r hour. 
t—r century. +>-$ throne. £»<> gain. «pP" calf. —rf_ bear. 
ki_ ass. i/ horse. <>«««- hen. w«. ship. f«£ cow. <>«£ 
wind. «&»£ death. *fa%t_ lad, boy. «y«»<J watch, f/ corpse, 
p-f shovel. *«£ famine. 

') See the footnote '), fith lesson. 



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3. Declension — Law of Permutation. 15 

The following four nouns elide in all other cases 
the vowel or compound vowel of the Nom. singular. Ex. : 
Nom. and Ace. f£»-^ head. Abl. f /A4 . 

n 77 77 u " r l" month. „ mJS\. 

n » 77 ZTP'"^ week. „ v> P p\r* 

Gen. and Dat. ^/A*—. Inst, tit'-i,* 

77 77 77 «•»•-• „ «"»•{,• 

77 ?7 77 srrA*-— 77 z m eP m L* 

77 77 77 *—£-— „ *-"£•{,. 

Words. 
f'^/«/* mast. p—plp tall, high. 

^«"^ saddle. Vfa/* long. f««f * short. 

P-nJ-fcuU CUb. upujh-uan. bright. 

«Y"*_ tail. o r day. 4^vlb % last. 

£**■.£*»£ chicken. A" v £r big. ^. 

afiujp^ku/h minute. *«m^ year. ^"^ 

Exercise 15. 

f*£#»ilr utlguiLf%trpp [un+np t>1bt *i t tut_nt% t^ufjtTrt put pip ipt 
*lfini% fltnt/pp ^fitt £t ty«/2r rn.tr ptupuiphirppi jutpflncb 
opbpp) optrpntX J-usJbpp tru J-uatTmfb ifuypfylruttiUlrppt -guidl. 
pm.1t i[puy ^tupnt-uvt tfutpq. Jp l^uipx ^tfunt.% ututfyt *\%utpntJb 
aflrpffib uiutpfth 4-t \\p^e»L^ pnJ-ftuhp uto.&n £t f|fi^?/?i_tr «y*£|y 
fyutplf £pt '^nif.b'buit-p ^nifnt.'li q.^iT tut fy'trpftuyx 

Translation 16. 

Give the lily to the lad. I like (fe «^/»*«T) the 
cow's milk. In the first (—«.*.££%) watch. Around the 
bright throne. The waves {-ihp) of the sea. Without 
gain. For the death of the friend. The chickens were 
near the old hen. With the helve of the shovel. The 
years of famine. The pupil is the last in the class. 
The first day of the week. Out of the way. 

Ninth Lesson. 



Law of Permutation and Elision. 

It is a peculiarity of the Armenian language that 
when a syllable is added to a word ending in a con- 



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16 Lesson 9. 

sonant, the vowel of the last syllable is either per- 
muted or elided. 

All words undergo these changes through con- 
jugation, composition and derivation ; as to declension^ there 
are only a few nouns which are liable to the same 
changes in the Gen. and Inst, singular, with certain 
exceptions 1 ) however. 

These vowels or compound vowels are: t, J, »-, 

1. t changes into J# as: 

«t/» love; -tt^L. to love; -ip^pt lovesong; -^it 
dear. «y««/f*4^ garden; iY«7»«»ffl«y««fc gardener. 

2. I and — a) ate elided in polysyllabic words, as: 
hu,^ flower; k-ikbL to flower; h-ifis flower- 
garden. «y«M»-^ fruit; «Y«»^«»/t^/f^ to fructify; *y—q*f-km 
fruitful. 

b) are changed into euphonic & in polysyllables, 
when preceded or followed by two consonants, and in 
monosyllables, as: 

^wpiTlp red ; Jt^Al to redden ; li—pjjt—^f^ redbreast. 

^ufk^uin rest ; ^u&^.uanui%u§g^ tO rest ; ^usit^.uututf$u/b 

resting-place. 

f}r writing; tt^L to write; *p»q_ writer; f/»««wi 
library. . 

£-/» water; £*»*/_ to water; #*>«»«- waterfowl. 

3. -v changes into •-# as: 

«/•>« hope; j»+ u ™l to hope; j~—-i£a hopeful. 
"*£•.>* salutation; w^—**/. to salute. 

4. I— changes into t# as: 

Jlu—\m% book; Ji—m^'iiwi.uipufo bookcase. 

M frH~f chamber; «AHf«"y*«» chamberlain. 

6. J- (eev), at the end of words, changes into 
— •) as: 

«y«M»j~ honour; «y«#«»»-A^ to honour; iyw**»—**pJ*u*% 
honourable. 

p-t- number; /*•*•*/.. to number; />•«»$«■& date. 

6. t-y changes into fr, as: 

^nnmH**; Christian; -$eh mu% l n, -Ph*' Christianity. 

syu$£*$t&ymj minister; «y«*£««©fct"*-^i t *-* r ministry. 

*) The beginners will be assisted with practical hints. 
a ) For the pronunciation of — - see the 8. page, 



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17 

Tenth Lesson. 



Fourth Declension. 

This declension includes the nouns denoting time 
which make the Gen. singular 1 ) in •— * (pron. £«*). Ex.: 

N., Ac. op day, &c. t/zfr night, &c. 

Gen., Dat. op*-m\. M.ff££rp*~-\ . 

Abl. o P lr or (rarely) o r — t tt. r ^ r tor (rarely f/J2f-f""»£t)' 

Inst. •/»»£• Tbz^p n lf 

mJuin. summer; *•&«- winter; aWk day, -time; 
$£«©/■ noon; k^-tblt" midnight; "y»op to-day; J~mJm^ 

%mf f mmh% time J mn.mnt- (uim.mnt.mb - prOn. mu.mpJm%} 

morn; m^mtLom*) morning; fpffnt.% evening; mujm^ 
{mJi»Li*%) month; ^mprnp-*) ( CT ^«.i»i) week; fy4f 
yesterday; <j£»2£ (^o^coA) to-morrow; if«#«r») hour; 
«/2»£ 2 ) death; ««»/»p) (m«« / f*f«.«ffc) year. 

Words. 
m.mfint.% spring. l^i- cool. 1 

m^nim autumn. ^«m very . ( w-*^ / Ihntfj 

iKnm%m\ season. \ in :Zvt^\ i»/t« four. 

£0t*.tiji% moon. mmmnt-jr sad. 

p-mf-n^f queen. i^"*- why? 

Exercise 17. ^ 

\nL.ufihn a.ftplrpnt-Ui1b fliunnu^ftu £i \\pirLp gtrp\l(ni-mu 
flma.mL.npb £ t |^</2ua.f»t_M«tr op&pn Ltuplf IrUt fl'/t mJmn.nt.utti 
opopb nu &i/b tint- wit nftyhpUypp trpLmjU iiht \\n.mnL.mu &L, 
fipft^nL.m% J-mJbpp Q n J a ^ % \}tuopnL.mh n-ttTt gmpni-mu £npu 
trnmhmuunph bh a.mpnu% t mifmn.) mpnt% etl. &iflrn.t *ftwpi*Q(r*ji 
ftu^ni. mpmnLtT kp* ffSw wpmnt-tT kp ftp (his) "-(""3 ft" *'*■'*• 
^numu ^tuJmpx \^ptffrtLmh y mjuopn»-mu nL. afmnnL.mb §kpp 

(Lord) J** (great) k* 

Translation 18. 
I have a dozen books. We had a glass of wine. 
The son of the queen has a gold ring. The daughter 



«) See the footnote '), 6* 1 * lesson. 
2) Declined also after the 3 d declension. 
8 ) Declined also after the 2<* declension. 
Elementary Armenian Grammar. 



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18 



Lesson 11. 



of the neighbour had a silver watch (<Lt—n»g»jg). The 
bird is on the roof (*—»%kg). There was a bottle of 
water on the table. Where (#/) are the fish? They 
are in the sea. Where are the girls? They are at the 
window of the church. Where are the books of the 
Armenian? They are upon his desk. 

Eleventh Lesson. 



Fifth Declension. 

Nouns terminating in •-/ make the Gen. sing. 
in — *» the Inst. sing, in — <£ t and the Gen. plur. in 
Jim. Ex.: 



Singular. 

N.,Acc.^«"«"«-' r promise, &c. 

G., Dat. ^aumJi>\ or £"t«^ 

AW. luauutu*.J%* 

Inst. /unuintfi»J£ Or^"""*""-«££* 



Plural. 
f,uumui.irx^ t promises, &c. 

fuiiutntfiiXm or fi"» 



t-uufrn 



htnuuinuJ*^-*]? • 



Also a few nouns 1 ) of different terminations make 
the Gen. Sing, in ~i, as: 

Gen. 
"~~" house. uimX. 



Gen. 

—qfH girl. UMnf^mX. 

ftyfwife, woman, ffcf«x. 
ifl\ husband. £/»♦-*• 
a.$up*Jb$ Spring. a.iup%~X . 
i-inJu Autumn. us^mX. 



2Z*-% dog. z~x* 

JuAm-f child. uTuu^mX. 

uAmJii noun, name —%-i.mX. 
a— t fish. <*f~t- 

Words. 

£»&-&(> course. 
<**«- form. 

^wtmwH/^/ true, faithful. 
n.j-ut.u.p difficult. 
^lupnuuut rich. 
mu fg""* poor. 

an^uBpp- (pron. igfarP) 
blithesome.(^^^f^) 

') The h and •-» in the last syllable of these words are 
subject to the Jaiv of permutation) see the 9th lesson. 



$»i?4»*-« r% declension. 
ftamwrfui-J* conjugation. 
U u UnLt r study. 
fal^uS calling. 
juyutus^f, program. 
pay verb. i»*t yard. 
tyu, a n*.JT admiration. 



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5. and 6. Declension. 19 

Exercise 19* 

ftuuJutlbn iuutmutq.[tppt tf*uwjlrpnt?b funtiuip^nt-Jp n.Jnuu?p 
£s n'/f £*"£/& uihnuu/ti \ntnJJat%a Xtrutrpp n.Jnuuup flit Q'V 

£t f\i.um.gft*[i ^luuututtMtpJtiT ^p ftp Ign^Jlubnt ^fnugiftuifh t( cMta**'***? 
<|«a#^rtr<i«tr qni-Utpfl trquihut^nt Wfliutlb urfunt-p (SEu) opbppt 

Translation 20. 

Where are you? I am [in] the yard of the old 
house. What will you have? I will have the rings of 
the girl. Give a bit of bread and a cup of milk to the 
poor child. There is a nest on the belfry. They had 
a long course of study. The doors of the school-house 
are old. The leaves of the flowers are yellow. The 
smile of the child. The tail of the black dog is long. 
The head of the fish (sing.). 

Twelfth Lesson. 



Sixth Declension. 

Nouns terminating in — Jif-* are declined after 
the following paradigm. 

Singular, 

N., Ace. pmpk$mJi*$\*X friendship, &c. 

GL, Dat. p—plr$mJH*.pimU . 

Abl. gu.pHmJk.pM. 

Inst. puip*fymJm±p\rmf£ Or pmp*fymJm*.pfr*5$mfa 

Plural. 

N., Ace. p»*plr%mJaLpfit.%ll>t friendhips, &c. 

G., Dat. pmptfmJkLptr-Xf or p—p*4mJ»i.p/fMyt*->* 

Abl. pwrtr%-JZi.p/n.Hl>tl> . 
Inst. pmpHmJmK.pfrMbfi.* 

Words. 
s^utmJMt.p/ti.% history. p**.mpu$%*Lpt»3i arithmetic. 

%u,frm^ r wu»i.pi»i5, sentence. jmfp^m^p^A success. 
% plr V uA i u.%n^pt*i-% grammar. ^«y»*«/wW^^k translation* 

2* 

... ^..^mmmwmmWmmWkmWklkWk 



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20 Lesson 18. 

*-mi.£mg.piii% laziness, idle- fcJl*um—.pfcA, wisdom. 

ness. brfmm*mpi. young man. 

f.l>mmip-£t& science. 2m$kfm% interesting. 

$miQttrf*i.p-Jn.% patience. «££- great, large. 

u^mfiuttu^$Ms%mi.p-fii% duty. §*"£?? &H« P'V verb. 

u,%\lrjbmup^% sincerity. J^m^m^p^p-^ literature. 

Jh^pfuX vice. %ut^m^u UP forefather. 
mm.uigfrnt.p-^tX virtue. 

Exercise 21. 

ftt%uyhna-P-[u3U ni%uyhni.piiiMiUg% ^utu$t/aa.p&w% n^unutQt 
pui^lrfyiuls k* fiu»plrQu$ifni.p-lrssilig tu%^&qhrnt.pit%t'ht •fclrpui*. 
Lutbnt.pirmh q.utun ij.fi $.pfth (rt C % u " ,f ufutuihlwp Ijiujph Xbp 

(your) puspif-JufUnt-ptruSUtj Jkfj \*Jusuumt.ptwusJp (wisely)* 

fbnt.ui£i*u%nt-fitotfr tMtuw % ^ninp JninufltruSbg n.^tTt Qutfnnnum. 
plrtu% ^usUiupt frrtfnp o-fiwni-pfiLVblrplJbx \}ut\u*L in. Jjpirupaiu 
^uaj ifututh'biata.pnt.plrtub %uifasu^uyplrph ti'ht 

Translation 22. 

The young man is true to his duties. The study 
of sciences is very useful. There are many words in 
the translations of your grammar. The teacher's pa- 
tience is very great. Patience is a great virtue. Without 
success. Idleness is the mother of all vices. The verb 
is the life of the sentence. 

Thirteenth Lesson. 



The Auxiliary Verb. 

b/') / am. 
Indicative Mood flj-4'~M-* btr-M)* 
Present Tense (^ri'V *«•■£*■»#)• 
Singular (btrtf)- Plural (e-ffc-ff). 

fr-«) ir'tT I am. 4*+ Mi$ we are. 

ifmmJi iru thou art. ■*••*"+ k# you are. 

~* k he, she or it is. -x^t* h% tjiey are. 

') This verb is strictly defective, its wanting tenses being 
supplied from t\\TL to be, to become. 

*) The Armenian verb does not always require the personal 
pronouns $•-. r—» mX etc., the persons being sufficiently marked 
by the terminations of the verb. 



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The Auxiliary Verb. 21 

Imperfect (ll*$— n«r)« 

fr- ty I was. 4** kphe we I © 

r ~Ji ifo thou wast. f *-f kkp you J © 

-* £ r he, she or it was. ~*-V tyfc they | * 

Perfect*) (u~r- t l>~ L ). 

(.« A^-r/ I waS. 4-W lrqm\g W6, | <£ 

f»*l ^^ur r thou wast. f— + *2!V you. J <S 

-.1 ^^«»«. he, she or it was. ~*«t* A^fc they. | ^ 

(.« ^fiinf, ziumJ* I shall I 4*f ifivfiziuBttevre shall) 
f»-t „ £/!«"« thou wilt |<d *••-* „ r/i^youwillj® 
•* w £/l?T/ ^ e w iU I «•%•** „ /»||f«^ they will) 

JFYrstf Conditional (R»t~$-* IVf^M • 

(»* fy^m^ £L&ub I should 

f»Jt w riu'utr thou wouldst 

~* ?! /^"V* he would \ i 

4** 77 £WvPtp we should 

r—* n ewvte y° u would 

•»*•*♦ „ mu m jb % *h e y would 

Imperative Mood (4 r ~/-y~i~* btrM)» 

P*t- ciu—P let me be. ciu ut *ip 1st us be. 

*tA/» be. ~*i&p^* ^l^p he. 

P-t. iraw ^ hi m ^ e - P*t. £/*-'** 1st them be. 

Subjunctive Mood (Uf-r-r— -H* bir^-l)' 
Present (*iiItH) # 
fr* »#» ciu—^ that I | 4-V *»/» £iu"t!g that we 

r*"" 1 77 £/£"" 77 thOUJjg t-^+ 77 ££-"<£ 77 y° U 

mX 77 £/I^ 77 he ) ~ UX * 77 CH-"* 77 *^ e Y 

Imperfect (U*{— r~r)« 
l>« w/»/t /i* '(/^ that I were. 4-^f »/»/f/L»^^thatwe | ^ 

r wJ1 77 aivvh 77 thou wert. r •-♦ 77 cwute 7? y° u 1 1 

~* 77 cwt 77 I 16 were. «.x»t+ ^ ctwufi' 77 theyj ^ 

*) This tense corresponds in sense with the French passe" 
defini or the Italian passato remoto; in Armenian, the tense 
corresponding with the English perfect is called Q~ t ~\<~rm t 
preter-perfect. 



<D 

rQ 



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22 Lesson 14. 

Participles (Or— Hl— M-^lr)* 
Present ^^ being. 
Posf bqi»hr been. 
Ftrfwre zlwi"*- about to be. 

Remarks. 

1. The compound tenses are formed by combining 
the Past Participle of the principal verb with the auxi- 
liary verb !■/ or cart' as: ^v*" *«^ I have been (liter. 
I am been); lrqu*&- hf> I had been (I was been); bq^h- 
if,*,/, ziuuf I shall have been (I shall be x been). 

2. The negative of the auxiliary t-^ is formed by 
prefixing the letter i_, as: t+s I am not; ik he, she 
or it is not; "tfr-fi igii-Aig we shall not be. 

3. The predicate adjective, as in English, is always 
in the singular, as: 

Wpin-£ ^jim*. 4, The sun is bright. 
\\ U u,qk re ^c-*- t% 9 The stars are distant 

4. When in English, the predicate notm always 
agrees in number with the subject, it may sometimes 
be, in Armenian, put also in the singular, with nouns 
or pronouns implying plurality, as: 

1T*V Hf-yr k% *e» We are brethren (liter, brother). 

Fourteenth Lesson. 



Determinative Adjectives. 

These words always take their place before a 
substantive and remain undeclined. They are divided 
into four classes: demonstrative, possessive, numeral and 
indefinite adjectives. 

Demonstrative Adjectives. 

These are: 

uyu, utu or u— this or these. 

uy^ or w— that or those. 

u,jl» or «* that or those (referring to an object 
more distant than wr or «»«»). 

These adjectives precede the definite form of the 
noun. Ex.: 



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Determinative Adjectives. 23 

mjm »«i»«j«/i(. 11ns adjective, «y- mmhlbp^ iliese pears. 

-vr ttfiei Mat book. -j? f*%&«p%tpt those apples. 

«yt mf,\pti that lady. ~yt y-^^'Vil those caps, 

x^x ^ofmf»ct /Ae same cat. *•>* *»fej£ r g //# same persons. 

Words. 

tuum^ star. j^iutmm^u, P »$A monument. 

ti"l_ medicine. ^"14* parents. 

tytufuim palace. tws school. 

»?/«" cheek. +»$ contented. 

—It nation. *.mm% bitter. 

^c«/^^/^ hospital. bu*%p heavy. 

bpfuAf,^ happy. p-M&fm+fit, precious. 

""Y*r£"*'M unhappy. 'yri. simple. 

f&wfS fresh. {%a»g«rfcf. obedient. 

<«#«„«.& ripe. bpk if. iAmi» t metal. 

n^ptmfu glad. «#*#«/&*$ immortal. 

,ui$ pp hungry. »Ku$%i»%iujhl mortal. 
*ru.(,u,i- or •/ thirsty. 

Exercise 23. 

Wj u P un t u "- n t , P ^tupni-uui £t W^jh Puta.nt- < £f>% tut <>**«» 
pnt-utn f;t Wjf utirfLuih tuttnirpp LtupJjip hut (\u6fih &L. tup^ 
hiuPp flush£uta.fih Jhwuinhtrp a%x \\u utfiLftVbtrpp nt-putfu 
bqu/hx %nju fiifanthp Lp putufyfi uyu ^yutl^tutu tuatitutuflh u%ft 
\£b pn a. autut.iH.lt fytujJbpp put pip kflht Qui Piuq-nt-^uttfu np*. 
rtfthtrpp trpOuthhL £pU) i MU U9 utiubpCu/bfiL irnutut ^njtt uifunt.p 
titupn.n ^nu ujfrutft pfljvp bp^tyt \}fyantrgfthlrpp) 1 u {( ,n yht r pn bt. 
\ftt-utun.tuungulrpn tuqn.fi tip jftjwmutfytupu/uulrpu but £uta*, 
uutuq. irq/ip Xbp bunnoulrpnLut \pujpJ/tup Jtu^fyufbtuanL. £, 
putty ^na-fiu ututfiu^ £t 

Translation 24. 

This butter is fresh. That medicine was very 
bitter. These apples are ripe, but those pears are not 
ripe. That child will be good. Those girls were very 
idle. Give these flowers to the same ladies. The sun 
is bright. The stars are distant. Those mountains are 
not high. The forms of these adjectives are simple. 
Those young men would be contented. Are you hungry? 
No, I am not hungry, but I am thirsty. Be a good boy. 



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24 



Fifteenth Lesson. 



Irregular Declensions. 1 ) 

B. 

»/_ sister-in-law 
band's sister). 

D. 

)}««,«<.«,*») GO(l, &C. 



A. 
N., Ace. $~> r father, &c. -w^ 



Abl. ^ r 4- 

Inst, ^•f^-i or $*t m L 



N., Ace. *4r love, &c 
GK, D. "flp*j» 
»Abl. -4/+. 
Inst. "frL* 



(hus- 



E. 



Singular. 
N #J Ace. -«^«v b°y> &c. 

Abl. m^Mg/t. 

Inst, —i^y-fa 



N., Ace. «&7*?- man, &c. 

a., d. -/^— 

Abl. «/^t-. 
Inst, fmwk 



Plural. 
—qi*+ boys, &c. 

•^f^fj^jnen, &c. 

A. Like 4-yr ars declined its derivatives; also 
«f-yr# and Kf-vr and their derivatives. 

B. In the the same manner as •n-i. are declined: 
tt % *) H %m t) woman or wife; -Mt^ ("-M^-i) lady; 

-'tr 1 ) (-»fr-£) lord, owner; ^vr 8 ) (•£/•"£) sister; $*««-/» 
(f fr« r »£) mother-in-law (husband's mother) ; —v^p brother- 
in-law (husband's brother); fcfy sister-in-law (the wife 
of the husband's brother); ~%kp father-in-law (wife's 
father); &t*p*) mate. 

') The irregularities are chiefly confined to the singular. 
*) \\mu>m,-u*± when denoting a god follows the first declension. 
*) Also its derivatives. 



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Irregular Declensions. 2B 

C. In the same manner as «tf are declined among 
a few others: 

23* (cu UV ) light; j»j» (j»*-»v) hope; <>•-/* (<>/*-,) fire. 

Remark. 

Excepting the irregular nouns, and those of the 
sixth regular declension, all nouns may also follow 
the first declension (the most usual paradigm); but for 
the sake of euphony, the learner is advised to decline 
every noun after the proper forms of its declension* 

Words. 

^opLqpuyt. uncle (paternal). ^»u^ib looking-glass, ^kav^ 7 

^opuigyp aunt „ tflpivpQai. coat. 

i&plqpuyr uncle (maternal). p-m^fihm^ handkerchief. 

Jopuqttyp aunt „ 2st m n^ um g°Tvn. 

opkkg law. y-n^bng apron. 

T&un-w^uyp ray. [ers. f.p^u,% pocket. 

$b^u,^u,(,u/b chest of draw- f^utpf -fez, faK 

flflljc hat, bonnet. ^"» here. 

il»ir,r sublime. $»& there. 

uShttLqb sincere. »ll>^ always. <>/&•&» now. 

ty^ulif. il^ sick. ^utmtmplrmi^ perfect. 

Exercise 25. 

}^jutnnt-tuh u*;p Jft \j b vtnm.b r nj ontfttpn Luiutusntruai 4" t 

A°PC. fap tum p P m cb £* W°pp U ^PIL "fbi^qb £t S^lppii npq-Pi 

UfW kp* %^p n 2c. q-nt-uvp£ ^Tbutqiulbq. {tp* ITfe"* Sfrp n $tl "ft*- .' 
pyk *lkf* He/" fwpifpp ifuipiflrpn uyh ""J^gn ^tiaifiup Alb t 
tT°P' u PP n fC. tf'^IWP ^lrpuiuin.uipu/tifflU i/piy t* \$*1rpnp(i 
tf-ifuwpffn fyutpJfip kp * \%lrupnCti ppft"99.Autnn uiru £pt \\ju 
^uybifib &trp Jtpnfjl ^ivifuip I? t }\jl» Juspt^ngn ^opji^Ubpn ^nu 
Grfitit \ncunj TCutmuttLa^fS-liirpn uiutibuin. b% Jpju** H^ h «*«— 
utnt-tuhlblrpnuh |^cscf?m_u/dyr j tn^pirpnett S^PP "*- P n WP a J* u P'h' t & 

t«ypp* Hjq- b1» n f_ IpHiL ty t - u *"t Lp* SqrstL tytulpiL **- 

kurrfLwUtj tfitrnnjpLtrpn <£nb krffbt \}[»pnJ be jnuunJt 

Translation 26. 

The lady's brother was [in] that palace. Where 
was the uncle's book? It was [in] the pocket of the 
father. These boys are diligent. Those men are idle. 



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26 Lesson 16. 

The boys' mother will be here to-day. Lives of great 
men are sublime. This coat is for the brother, and 
that gown is for the sister. Prom the old aunt. That 
bitter medicine was for the sick brother-in-law. From 
the father of light. Give this handkerchief to the aunt. 
This boy goes to school with the class-mate (y.i««/A{Af). 
I shall be [in] Amassia (u«&»"i&«*) to-morrow. 

Sixteenth Lesson. 



Possessive Adjectives. 

These are: 

l"T or frJJ>% my. JLf or J&pfb our. 

* ma - t) •e-'-bP' *%• ly r » **rf* your. 

h n h k% h-is, her or its. tr^y their. 

The suffixes 1 ) -» <j" an( l* or t are appended to the 
nouns followed by these adjectives. Ex.: 

J/ Jbwfiv- my pencil. 4f fr—%—.p't our shop. 

♦•- <J"/r thy top. fa "»»*■%£ your house. 

J r iuub IVL his or her needle. ttt^v «y«"f «■■£*& their garden. 

The suffixes -> ? an( l * or tj x i m * x tr an( i x l x t 
Jr*i»# h x lr an( ^ tr 1 ! 1 are usually substituted for these 
adjectives. 

a) The •» j- and * or & for the singular/*) as: 

7-y-*"£- wiy spoon. ^t^fy* wiy spoons. 

$y$stui$stn.uq»wqtr thy fork. u^ututuMn-wouMt^bft^ f/iy forks. 

**"-*/& Aw or her broom. «M.frjfcA/»g A?s or Aer brooms. 

6; The *J-, tf r and l|% for the plural*) of poly- 
syllabic words, as: 

^uSLutljH* our ruler. t gm%^%^fHm our rulers. 

f«*/£u«£uflf j. yowr inkstand. ^/^^/Afytjj. your ink- 
stands. 
T^iI fX i x (pron. £ y. • • •) MeiV f&itkirjXf 1 * their penknives, 
penknife. 

*) An unaccented euphonic gis inserted between the sub- 
stantives ending in a consonant and the suffixes - and ?, as: 

3 ) Of the possessor, and not of the possessed object. 



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Possessive Adjectives. 27 

c) The Wh* h x h and fr f tft for the plural*) of 
monosyllabic words, as: 

Wh**f" our cow or cows, 1 ) &c. 
The possessive adjectives must be repeated before 
every noun of the same sentence, as: 

I*/ $"ij[>" fiL. £/ d*q/p m or $"yp* be Juyp* $nu *%• 

My father and my mother are here. 

Words. 
,£"!*% purse. Jut^Qtuhtvijnt. mortal. 

j- tu Jiu^nfif watch. ^ofiirqpoftnfHf./t cousin. 

q.—etuqium Stick. bqpttputqffilf Or 9 glrn.uiq$Jtli 

%,»t. t i,u i lr»t captain. niece. [ew. 

q.&qlu,%fi% canary-bird. bqpopnpqft or ^bn.n F qft neph- 

ttfuut^ mistake. bptpujtfu^mumtf tall. 
u*i,Jiu$ immortal. 

Exercise 27. 

\%tT Jutjpu ^nu tt *fcnu onjpq. bpffusjbut^uiuutlf f?x \pbp 
^opbqfiopnpqftu ^utpncuur ^pt Q,bp Joputpnjpu nL. joputpnjpu 
lunpwtn bqutbx Z,°p u *£*"*& ftp qptuutuu £t <4tbn.npq.enfu 
J-utdaignjgbbpp ^b^u$u»q.utput%ftu ifotvj £ft% t fl*ep bti ftiT q.if.tufu 
be fttP ufu»inusn.utputqut {^bn%a one ubqusuftq. tfpuu but \\ju 
Ju$pq.ftup Jbp puipbutuubbpb h%t H-/^- u "1 n 5ip 'ty/PP JSt"^ 
n.u*qfftqu hp x U^^r pnqhuutenebutueutufbtnp ^opbqp.u*fpq~ fcpt 
Q,bp bqp.opnpq.ftlb $4"" dp nebfrpt fl'^i 'ft^qqjp dp neufrpt *flne 
•PT/P^ft ftp^B UH-bfbbpn neb(rftut *\%bq&u/uftfu ftp Jutbq.utlfftu 
v%f_ b* jrbty> ftpL% ouibtuffp be ftpbu qJbtftu nebfcftupt }\ju 
tnqneu <>»£#» ^ne Xbn^q. (in thy ...)£/»« h a P tu /P u n *3ift «■/» 
utq^lfuib outuutlfn be IfutqutJmppt \\ubqttftu us liquid tub fib 

(needle-case) Jkf_ kp* 

Translation 28. 
My dog is old. Thy cat is white. Where are my 
books? Your books and (your) pens are on your desk. 
She has many mistakes in her translation. Here is 



') In order to avoid this ambiguity, it is better to use 
the possessive adjectives 4r» Mr *nd frr^s* with their respective 
suffixes, as: «/&/• u»*l%£i Xkp f*^*. &c. 



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28 Lesson 17. 

your father's stick. My soul is immortal. My body is 
mortal. Your cousins were [in] our garden. Where is 
his sister? His sister is not here. That is our mother's 
purse. Their brothers would be here to-day. My niece 
goes to school with her nephew. Our flowers and (our) 
lilies are pretty. Her eyes and (her) eyebrows are 
black. Their uncle's horse is brown. My cousins will 
be here to-morrow. 

Seventeenth Lesson. 



Proper Nouns. 

There are in Armenian: 

1. Proper names of persons: 

a) Gliristian names, as: 8"^"/* Jacob; ir«r^w Maiy. 

b) Surnames, which are formed by appending l—t 
a particle denoting origin or family, and corresponding 
in sense with the English son or Scotch mac y as: 
U7.Wl.~l Mac Adam; Hmirfm%lm% Stephens^?. 

2. Names of countries, provinces, towns y mountains, 
seas, rivers, lakes, months, as: b*/»«"Y a * Europe; 0.«*/^«» 
Turkey ; }%mmmm%^m».^m^ (*i • "I**//*) Constantinople ; 
Wpuspusu, Ararat; jrf^£f r i i ti' u 'i' sA Mediterranean; q»«i*«&ji 
the Danube; fc/^ it* lake Erie; U*YfAz. April. 

Remarks. 

1. Proper nouns follow the first declension. ■) 

2. All the proper nouns (excepting those of per- 
sons) ending in f- make the Gen. in l-j, as: 

UM/J- England; !3>fa£*y p-f.»*.<;f>% the queen of 
England. 

^lrpJu0%\m Germany; *\>1rpJu,%fa k'VVe. the emperor 
of Germany. 

3. Proper nouns admit of no article in the Nom., 
Gen. and Inst., if not preceded by an adjective or a 
possessive modifier, however they always have the 
definite article, when in the Ace. and Abl. cases, as: 



% ) For the 1 st declension and the nouns ending in - see 
the 5tn lesson. 



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Proper Nouns. 29 

Qifekifi &<"%»(*£ *ptl»% kp Joseph was Jacob's son. 
IfmtfmJ* Ulififfj, Iflfp-mj Mary goes to church. 
<*\kciFbk^ f««- t-«mT I come from (the) Berlin. 
He m h kJ% e»4$~M'k"i I love (the) John. 

4. Proper names of places take no article and 
remain in the simple accusative^ where in English, the 
prepositions 1 ) in or at, to or into are used, as: 

Z,uyfi« b«t"**{£~ ftrpp-iiy My father goes to Italy. 
bqp'vr* 11*— i»rf~ fc i A ~t/' My brother lives in 
Austria. 

5. Proper names of seas, rivers, mountains, cities 
and months followed by the class names >•{, sea, fl-r 
river, fc— mountain, *-tr* city and -4* month, when 
as appositive modifiers, remain undeclined, whereas 
each of the latter is varied after its respective de- 
clension, as: 

N., Ace. u*«- b»{a the Black sea. 

(t., D. Zn.lA.u- f.lm{,% of or to the river Rhine. 

Abl. t\ifiJfy»» £km.%t% from mount Olympus. 

Inst, j^lrgtmmm^m ^-i^nfe with the city of Sfivas. 

6. National appellations 9 ) are formed from the names 
of countries, cities and places, by appending to them 
the suffixes $f# ~$J or tjj# as: 

\\Jl r f,lj~ America; JXJLrH-'lt ■£ an American. 
?w6m Sweden; £#»«.£*»»•>£ Swede. Uf-r^*"* m -1f ,, z/ t-f Adria- 
nople; u>w/im%*t.f*£ml 9 t Adrianopolitan. 

Words. 

i|ttff#f£#>« Charles. 8tyt St™?*) Sir. 

Qai-fjtHu Julius. ^m P m% , o| . «) Mister, Mr., Sir. 

ii&ffarf Caesar. SHfit 8H* Mistress, Mrs. 

<\*k»r+ George. Opfaet* Or* Miss. 

frmi[„ v kL Raphael. *imm—.irif 9 <i|M#m. Reverend, 

^^p- David. Rev. 

Yupusjk^ Israel. br***'"-^ Beatrice. 



f ) See also the 7 th lesson, Remark. 

2 ) These follow the 2d declension. 

*) To these correspond the Turkish words ttt^i and ~v 
which are also frequently employed, the former for educated 
persons, and the latter for persons in general. 



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30 Lesson 17. 

S^—yiL Isabella. 1/"-*/* Selina. 

Qu^usVisk" John. aw*, (was) born. 

U"/«* Asia. *£«.«.*. died. 

HlftrM* Africa. p**pf.JuAbj translated. 

Xptfiuij-kru, Mesopotamia. "y&*i*& visited. 

fanuufru, Russia. ^.is»^n plain, field. 

yrfrutghrut^ United. fawqu'ikp toy. 

%u$<$4-%1%kp States. f-truiuif, HtifiaL.'hg bank. 

b^r M the Euphrates. fg —u,pu,bu*.fi lies. 

Sftrh the Tigris. pui%u. U mb,ib- t «y**.£«* poet, 

^t^^ north. t t u*J}iusL.i,uMi_ famous. 

$u$piui.uyfftt SOUth. 

Exercise 29. 

He/" (utuqu/£^aLbpp^ \}uibtfiu/bfi% ^tuJutp bin y^pJftbk &*- 
Z,P "*!"*) 2__ &H* WTfak \\{*i-iIiuAm[i tpni-uutpUbpb bltt +£bn.utq^. 
pfiyts \}uft/uolirb fynu *f-*fj* ^| ♦ ^butpnu \\*LuiJbus1U ^uiJpuML-buMi 
q.bputuutb (actor) dpb 4/ri 0/»« U/ , ^ r Y^""7_ \S{>*Jnhliusb q.brjb^ 

abk -"itM *& k* mfriipy p<Msif.a^l»lu fyiusisuus (France) 
Ijbrpp-uMj iuJb% (every) wtupfii *\+hrpJut%[inj i*ypp "03^1^3 

\fpnuuiunfciljii ^n.b%nu n.bwfib tuthai%pp ptuin ^fib n.nbuib~. 
(castle) %bn fyaibi <1)u#m. \\uspn£nu ffrptjuf* W^pbi^Sb ^llf' ^* 

jjpuapunt-u$ii (Marsovan) fe p%u»I^J» bu jjtfuu/porfsu ^o/kfy 
mbopkVb (director) t« ^o^filt^p-iSb wJbppfiujfi xpfiusgbu,^ 

^tu^u/bqXbpniJb JutjpuMpuMi^ph (capital) tr* HFftlbpfputfuAs 
bntjji \ft-pnupM$jf» bu W'f'pf'itrf' dtfybn i^p uitupush-aL.^% Ijff^fw 

fuiu&MsA j&n*b&p£ (Caucasus Mountains) U^*- *«^*A bu 

\\uiuuj[it] (Caspian) bntfntJb Jbfuibnb'ht \\p uftpbtT<f\* ^puSbuip 
ku Op> Int-uftlspt ir{/""/'> ^k >$!£ {*}*** id* "*% bu <1\butpnu *\*ni,p-, 
bufb Z+uy pu*huiuutbnh*hbp £/%r s W/fi u bu hpf"* u.butbpp yp 

PuttfifTu (flow) U^*- bntfa* 

Translation 30. 

George is my friend. Where is my daughter 
Beatrice? She is with her sister Isabella. My teacher 
was [in] Russia. Constantinople is the capital of 
Turkey. Shakespeare [was] born [at] Stratford, [in] 
England. David was the king of Israel. Julius Caesar 
was a great man. Raphael was an artist (^bipupn^bu^ 



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Formation of female appellations. 



31 



*/•). Mr. Zohrabian translated these books. Miss 
Sirpoohi lives now [in] Marsovan. Mr. Jacob Afarian 
goes from Samson [to] Charshanba. Amassia is an old 
city on the banks of the Iris. Where are Mrs. Hagopian's 
white gloves? They are on the chest of drawers of 
Mr. Hagopian. The Red sea lies between Africa and 
Arabia (lV« a 7 f ^ M ')« The great plain of Mesopotamia lies 
between the Euphrates and the Tigris. Mrs. Zabel 
Donelian is a learned lady. Lake Erie is in North 
America. The Amazon, the Orinoco, and the Parana 
are in South America, and flow [to] the Atlantic 
(\\^ l us% r ir,u%) Ocean (*$£—%*»). April is the singing 
{?rt'"L) month. 

Eighteenth Lesson. 



Formation of Female Appellations. 

As in English, Armenian nouns have no distinctive 
forms, but a few have different forms to distinguish 
the masculine from the feminine. 

The masculine is distinguished from the feminine: 
a) By using words wholly or radically different, as : 



Masculine (mpm%m%). 

U^gU$ntun_ COCk. 
£»«.1ir dOg. 



fffcw/»f»f bullock. 
sff nL L bull; *f ox. 
i*i&t, ui r buck. 
fl»y ram. 
%nfiiu>f_ he-goat. 
^ horse. 
t) t-fjL Ac-wolf. 

iun.fit.hr Hon. 

ifutpnLtfu^, bird (cock). 

<J*W father. 
S'vrh papa. 
kipuyp brother. 
"nf or "Lump son. 
Ju»ui_ boy. 



Feminine (l>m., u ^m%). 
$tut- hen. 
j>u0& bitch. 
k pt % t. heifer. 
fȣ cow. 
uy&luuM doe. 
tfiugfi ewe. 
««/*- she-goat. 
l^Jpfrb mare, 
tf fVL sfte-wolf. 
/-.^-.j mn.^h- lioness. 
Jn, v fi bird (hen). 

«%/» mother. 
^"Jtbk mama. 
•gyp sister. 
n.nt-t$anM daughter. 
""itH girl. 



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32 



Lesson 18. 



flruuy bridegroom. 
-UP or kpH husband. 
Jr/lfoffi-fi or •gkn-upi^fc ne- 
phew. 
u,fiuip 9 mmp n % Mister, Mr. 
u i usp»% gentleman. [man. 
krfmmwup^. master, young 
mJ*i-pb bachelor. 
h-lrpaLlfi old man. 

J*»tt man. 

jyM#jy or $«*•«- grand-father. 



^mpu bride. 

fffc or ifrU wife. 



or 



»i*H 



niece. 
>»Mfi Mistress, Mrs. 
—tiftf °pt-pt lady. 
opfiapq. miss, young lady. 
iyt -itH maid. 
*y «#*.««*. old woman. 
tfl woman. 
J-J* or ^««V grand-mother. 



b) By appending the suffixes •«-££ and ~*->i.» as: 



hr Jfc a god. 
«-/»f') «£ a saint. 
fyfrk- 1 ) songster. 
^.fawlfL hero. 
p-w^m^nf*) king. 
4<?/ «£ an Armenian. 
UM^-aM) *%. an English- 
man. 
«■«•*$ •) neighbour. 
o| # 4*71?. Mr. Rose. 

o|. u V Mr. Love. 

*tj. ^wjlf Mr. Hai'g. 



u»uiM$aa-$ub-~-ty Jji a gOdtfSS. 

uppn-ty Jfc a saintm. 
*Tttr-^ songstress. 
y.f.i. a un{iin>-ty herome. 
p^-C( queen. [lady. 

^uym-ty <£ an Armenian 
Ufc{/»<-Cf ^ an English 

lady. 
^pusj.-ty neighbour (fern.). 
SH» or Or. lUTf-"^ Mrs. 

or Miss Rosa. 
8H* or Uh mX VL Mrs. or 

Miss Love. [noosh. 



8ft* 4»u4 ml vi. Mrs. Hai'ga- 
Reinark. 

Proper names and appellations derived from them 
begin with capital letters; but adjectives derived from 
them begin with small letters, as; 

ff^uAfu* Spain; ^^w^ Spaniard; u^A—i-A 
Spanish. 

Words. 

pus%utu$nlrqbr f <y»*.£m poet, h-ui^tumfc , tf-Un-uiu$ft yOUng. 



^ai[fii- (hoviv) shepherd. 
^k m ebL painter. 



u fpat.% lovely, pretty. 
fytmyiyu* blue. 



') The learner is requested to observe the law of permu- 
tation and elision; see the 9 th lesson. 

2 ) Droj> the suffix or the final vowel of a word when 
another suffix is to be appended to the same word. 



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Formation of female appellations. 33 

tfnJi count. »pp orphan. 

#«Wfc name, noun. —Irumhr irj* I have seen. 

I""i'«f^/ menagerie. fc rfr«fc^rw«r I know. 

tufinn. stable. fc ^.npb-b% they work. 

tyiufwfaiy.ui gardener. nt.%b S mh- £ he has had. 

Exercise 31. 

Wpni_uhrtu[( ( VOnUS) n_aqbg(^nt.pirtMib uiuuint_uth^nu<^ftb J^p x 
Sri* &*P'"t}* u U f-bptauutunu^fi tfpb 4" J i^utpnutf-uihp &l. tfutpAh 
a nth Mi iH$ Wb <£fitfittt |^*i ptArp au tfuttntstu usntiiArp a.utn.ut*. 
n.twqfili u%f trfftit 2-^/' * "fun fifth J&0 fyu/lt ifilrp ttL. nuiifp ftLhirp t 
^^jO-aubft^blrpp nut pin L*irii[d tub (go) uttir It ut tlfib <£&utt \\urrp 
^"UPP t l" i - u '( t ' u ^'f f p UL - frpfitttfttfrp , fttnjlrp av. tiutpfthap nub ft t 
\f^on}rgftb nublruuth- £■ ftp unupplrpb /?«_ uppnt_<£fibtrpp t fl"*/ £ 

"ui Aw'-tfi" sM- hp'^^^H' ^vp 1 * ^ x Vlji tu fibkfL ^v 

uu^utunu^ftb 4-1 Qp* <\*lrnutbnj2 uftpnt^h /rpa^nu<^fr ifpb fri \yt 
autbAtutn U U U ut q£ftlrpt Wjni utb tfitpuippnOti unL.it tn^tb £-. ftp 
utundtu 4" £*iL.putb (Lily) . G\tupuifiqtutubp &u tuutput ft guttata 
unu^p'b Ijp u.npbnb tuutpm^npu u%0x {}p ^uttfyuibnip uptutt Jit 
nubft ftp p-utpa.iituhnt.p- a uibn JhOt p*utpfiqnL.<£frulrpp %nput*. 
MruntPhusu (fashion) aJrpftuirpu (slaves) Vbi 

Translation 32. 

My uncle is a bachelor. Her daughter is a poetess. 
I have seen the bridegroom and the bride. His niece 
is a young girl. Is it a he- wolf or a she-wolf? It is 
a she-wolt. They have seen the actor and the actress. 
Your sister is a shepherdess. Their aunt is my neighbour. 
Your mother is a German lady. That lady is a prin- 
cess. Mr. Arshag is a painter, and Miss Rosa is a 
paintress. The count and the countess were [in] York 
yesterday. George is the king of Greece (6"*-*'""""'"*'), 
and Victoria is the queen of England. Elisabeth was 
a heroine. Do you know that gentleman? Yes, Sir, 
his name is Arsen. Our nephews have many horses 
and mares. My niece lives with an Italian lady. The 
little girl with the blue eyes is an orphan. Those 
gentlemen are the cousins of these young ladies. 

KJomcntarv Armenian Grammar. ! l 



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34 



Nineteenth Lesson. 



Numeral Adjectives. 

There are in Armenian two kinds of numeral ad- 
jectives, viz. cardinal and ordinal. 

1. Cardinal Numbers. 



^uiu'u twenty. 
^u l u%buJkti twenty-one. 
^uisAfybni- twenty-two. 
^puuAbpkp twenty-three, etc. 
bpb,.., L % thirty. 
ouin-uMunA forty. 
jfuui.% fifty. 
feuj&unA sixty. 
kop-uAusuntX seventy. 
M.p-unt.% eighty. 
^Vjuuul.% ninety. 
$*«rf>*-C a hundred. [one. 
^.up^P Jk% a hundred and 
bpf»t. ^-rb^V two hundred. 
bpb^ ^^rhr three hundred. 
$ tU i L u* r a thousand. 
^uti^r $/>%?• ^r/"-r fifteen 

hundred. 
pfrip ten thousand. 
Jlnfrifo a million. 

Remarks. 

1. Nouns preceded by the cardinal numbers remain 
in the singular, as: 

bp^m- $a»u% two houses ; <Zf*"t J2»n ^ ve i nen » 

2. br}-*- without a substantive expressed becomes 
M"-*> as: 

xrViig bp^ua.^ Aty* we are two. 

3. It is not permitted to say «»«««&*«..#$ <;^ r ^p t 

uiwu%bpl i ni- ^uspf,up t ,.»»„% hi-m-P <$'»?/»•{' e ^., l)Ut ^us^uip 
^tup/iip, ^utywp bpfynt. ^tupfiLp, <^uti£u»p ni.p- <Z*-pf'-p etc. 

4. A m rht an( i *-trr are never accompanied by 
the indefinite article, as in English. Ex.: 



upo, »if&i„ zero. 
«/&{ one. 
bplfu two. 
bpkp three. 
l»i»u four. 

{b a six. 
b<>p-£ seven. 
M-Pe eight. 
f*%£ nine. 
uttuun ten. 

u %bi.i/kf[ eleven. 

uiibp^ML twelve. 

uitbpbf, thirteen. 

„%bt.j_»pu fourteen. 

u %bi.^f%^ fifteen. 

»%b^jbg sixteen. 

»%bi-bopp seventeen. 
uttuuitbi.iii.p-p eighteen. 

u %bi-l>%p nineteen. 



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Cardinal Numbers. 35 

A hundred or a thousand piasters, ^rhr t""** 

5. The expression: 'I am 15, 20, 40 etc. years 
old 1 cannot be rendered literally, but must be ex- 
pressed thus: muup % ^ a ,u% f ^mn.,uun*.% ^-.^J^X £«A\ 

How old are you? is translated; *m\]r MW/ >^ ^. Ex. : 

lt r -evw +~ x t* f- ftf-A k f hotv eld is your sister? 
»% 4>*m% .r~ t \r\-\ k, she is twenty years dd. 

6. Days of the month are expressed by cardinal 
numbers. Ex.: 

K'wtL ■*♦# the 1st of April. Wyfa fyf"*/?, the 2d 
of May. 

7. The question: 'What day of the month is it to- 
day'? is translated: \Xj»op *»&„& ^, u %/r% £, 

Answer: U«/"<>/» «■»*/&»«.># fk 9 % k. 

8. The English 'on the sixth 1 etc. is rendered in 
Armenian & 9 fi. Ex.: On the 6<*i of June, 6<"ty» &jfi. 

Note. Verbs denoting time govern the Dative, as: 

at noon, f(»«ffi; at midnight, f*"f/^rfk; at two 

three, four etc. *j4"yi*» M*rf*» wJ** etc.; in time 

wm&ty?,, j-mj:»%mm%') in the morning M*#t.*»c.o<f»».-?/ ; in my 

childhood, JMbf -i.p-l.mX* . 

9. The hours of the day or night are expressed 
(see the note above, 8) thus: 

at two o'clock, ^-/^ Lptf-i^yi. 

at half past three, «£»«»£ trpke ««- f £"p» • 

tvliat o'clock is it? «£«"£ .gufofn* k> 

it is ten o'clock, «£*«»«£ ,»,»-% £. 

a quarter past five, W»tc f-^— pt - ,„*,£,«,&- 4. 

a quarter to four, i-p-f>% ^tun.-p^ j-y. 

five minutes to one, '«4f/fr </tef. £ w ^«,i, j-y. 

10. Collective numbers are formed by suffixing (.-{ , as : 

VUt J h a pair, a brace. y p b,X^m\ about 30. 

V?yfr-f half-dozen. ^u, n .u,,X^m\ — 40. 

Lptyi^g/nuty or bpQumimub^ml j[>u%±~\ 50. 

a dozen. ^u^^j—j — 100 



«H~} about ten. <J„/ 7 „ r j.-.{ — 1000. 
j»uu*u%.mi l a score. 



8* 



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36 Lesson 19. 

11. Proportioned numerals which express a quantity 
multiplied; are: 

«y*7»t simple. ^uim.ui^usmffi fourfold. 

kpkt % or bpk u i lu ' m bk double <Jfcf.«"y«.m^ fivefold. 

or twofold. [fold. ^-p^pui^-i-M lOOfold. 

iaiKiywM^ triple or three- 

12. The English 'some twenty' etc. is rendered in 
Armenian ^*m% «fc or ^--ifi tr#» as: 

^-uSu / t or .gumXf, )mt u*iu%&, some twenty pears. 

Words. 

U«"7»j* (0 •) ^apa the Bible. «*w«T hour. kg_ page. 

• ••/*»» jwJffo in the year *»«•»£» ^«#ir ^»«n» (\,. ^.) 

j«»^ $*«««* (6« £•) in the before Christ (B. C). 

year of our Lord (A. D.). ^.«»«.*. discovered. 

«*«.«£ ago, before. <Ja#m^ volume. 

ifuMuipkp lived. *b'-'u?dfi' ^e peasant. 

...£*-... or . . . «■»/_ . . . {^^ v^f - **-***^ child. 

. . . and . . . are. t-p century. 

k'e^k make. says Vp-k* "r that. 
m%^mJT times. 

Exercise 38. 

Z,°P"1f tu f/P u * f0 [ , ri' tuui-Uil^ niXp ^fttsu. tfu/b* hi. bpbnu 
uitjOfiltt <^*hg_aiM»ijpU bpbuntSbbi-^fiuu. bii } Buniu/unt%bphnt. 
(tnifj nuP-unijbiruai^n uyb~ nc bop} uihutunuhh u\npu ntjuuip 
oi.lf /i t \\Luusbnnji [*hp ufuuti nubfi ftp ^puf^uthiffib Jkf* \?°ftp 
he ni-P-n utuiuhh i-^fibu- Uphill *ftu$s/Lbi.u%b ufhu.wj* bpbunt.^ 
%bp^nuu DUMbfT ljpl»k* 21 uihu^iutT 32 ^V^fr 4f*9 '$ iU pfl t -i' 
iroP-uthtMtundt&p^nt^tt Hpirff ibptulU <^utpfii-p iptu^bl^utU Ifpbl^t 
*ftut1bh uttupbbuih £p I \^u o*btub bJ % jusuph <$usqutp at-fl-p <£u*^ 
pb"-p dh*ftt-unt-bhrL.*npufib , he <£fiJut bpbumXth e<£[thii. inuinbbuih 
biTt ftti-uuipu h'Lutit £-1892 ll*Y/'A/ ^faffo* ^btnpau *\*ni-p^ 
truth Zf"// puihtuuuiBnbp JbtvutL. Jo72^»» //» ouutbbcdbb 

utujphfyu/b Cm^JX (in the 21st year of his age) Jk£j 

\Jitf.nt.p^au fy'uiufpkp nt-P <^tupfn-ppt *|,. %£♦: S^pft bpkjl 
^utpht-p Jutpuneuhe^fiiu. op nuhft % ^JunuutU opbpn bpbum'b 
hi. jiupPnt-u/b opbpn bofflh h*Lx fruttfp GO */tvjpfybus1b nubftx 



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Ordinal Numbers. 37 

kpx %uiifiojknli JbntuL. g* z,f"[l^kr (St. Helena) hlHtlP' ^L 

1821 \Y u yfr u hp* 1 d %tu ^il ^M«A/fl» k* d %u,i ^_ "Lp% (rt fruiifp 
fiVbfib i»tun.npn. ubutguih- n.tunna fy'lrnftf-utiT Ll. }"pun tntuun 
uihaaih- uint% tftiL. n.uttPt \pabp jpuntlbfi >**"/» fuiiXnn ire trnLitL. 
ipyH. <Zuu_4f>/2 ntXpigt \\.^\fffjtu % 28 Qfii.1i fit* 1899* bpHf*" 
tjbtulf Jh tpti__ ^*- ^"utlbirnt^ Jn t^fipp nAfuTt 

Translation 34. 

My neighbour has 3 pounds of sugar. The princess 
lias two palaces. We have 240 pupils. 489. 1864. 65. 
500. 11. 1000. 10000. 1000000. I have seen 21 mer- 
chants. The city of Tr&bizond has 45000 inhabitants. 
A (the) day has 24 hours, and an (the) hour has 
GO minutes. We have a score roses. 36 and 42 are 77. 
How much is three times nine? 3 times 9 make 27. 
In 1860 the city of Heidelberg had 14,502 inhabitants; 
now it has 40,000. 7 days make a week. 30 days make 
a month. The Bible says that the days of man are 
three score years and ten. Columbus discovered America 
in 1492. My father was born in the year 1844. How 
old is your mother? She is 55 years old. Where were 
you yesterday at seven o'clock? I was [in] my room 
with the singer. The king and the queen will be [in] 
Rome {^-—[•r) on the 10 th of June. What o'clock will 
it be to-morrow at this hour (*«/" «*«»*/2-fc)? It will be 
eight. My teacher has some 200 volumes of books. 
This grammar has 144 pages. Anatolia College, Mar- 
sovan, Nov. (% v tri£tr r ) 3, 1895. 

Twentieth Lesson. 

Ordinal Numbers. 

Except ~*--i}i, |. r f r . rr , |. pr * rt - and trrr*rr> the 
ordinal numbers are formed from the cardinal bj r 
appending frr-rr* They are as follows: 
iun.u*£ffo first. iitf$p$ip»f. fourth. 

y rke n vt second. ^H^f-rr fifth- 

^VVPt third. 4^d^t m tT sixth. 



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38 Lesson 20. 

4ro/ttr{.r M rr seventh. »f/?«jM.fc{.j»» r f. 80 th. 

" L Ph m tT ©ight. [,%%»„*lsy t » tr 90th. 

^,H f . fr ninth. ^^/^r-rr 100th. 

mu«»Hf"ff tenth. ^i$$p^Lp t—uu\,kt-$fftiii\>fmfY 

«^tK4}t rrr 11th, 115th. 

u. u . u %k P l l m^ t ^ t r 12 th. {/** <>"/tfi r 4f (. r » rr 501 st. 

mm^^^tr^rr 13 th. <;.«#^«« / .|. f » f i t - 1 000 th. 

ua$sttt%kt-iapu^f»fi^ 14tll, uwusup ^u$g^utp 'Ito^ftV 

4i mm^ t m tr 20th. • 10006th. 

*,*...«.*l-r- r r 30th. 4^«H r -rr 1000000th. 

j^mmAVt^r BOth - tr-rr 126000000th. 

^<,/2„„ t H f .. rr 60th. £*rtf* last. 

hofB-UtiiUMMItuh^mmmi^ 70 th. 

Remarks. 

1. Fractional numbers are expressed by ordinal 
numbers, as in English, as: 

{r£« or «#{ kptipnp^. a half; £/•{"«. m-pkpnp^. two 
eighths; «#f ^fc^*/'"/"/ a fifth; /«/»«» «•«•«** /»«/»/- four 
tenths. «^J *»«- ^4« ^f*^ one pound and a half; J£« «* W 
half an hour; «*W ««. lft» one hour and a half. 

2. Proper names of princes take the ordinal num- 
bers without an article, as: 

M^/"^ V* • f ) (*rtr»n) William II. ; <bk»rt € l- • (*/rw) 
George III. 

3. The distinctive numbers (numeral adverbs) are 
expressed by the ordinal numbers, as: 

u»n.u»ff,% or %»»y» first; bpfonpt- secondly; 
hpp- n thirdly, etc. 



') Value of the letters of the 


alphabet used as 


1 


«f 10 


tf 


100 


1000 


F 2 


A 20 


*T 


200 


2000 


* 3 


L 30 


J 


800 


i_ 3000 


't 4 


fr 40 


% 


400 


m 4000 


fr 6 


• * BO 


Z. 


500 


F 5000 


t 6 


4 GO 


n 


600 


a 6000 


4: 7 


< 70 


L 


700 


7000 


£ 8 


4 80 


"t 


800 


* 8000 


• A* 9 


q_ 90 


L 


900 


# 9000 



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Cardinal Numbers. 39 

4. Both, all three, all four are to be rendered by 
«*/_; the preceding numeral or substantive takes the 
definite article, as: 

Lpfri^X ,» L both; Lpkp 1 '"L a U three; £•»/•«* u»/_ all 

four. 

hp^nu ^njpirpl iu^ both sistei'S J ^g IrqpnyfiiibnX $u^ 

all six brothers. 

B. All the numeral adjectives follow the first 
declension. 

Names of tlie months. 

Q»t?ii»ti*/» January. 6"«-/A« July. 

(jt&OT/tffctfjf February. o*-"""""' August. 

XTiupm March. \\b, Hm bJpb P September. 

IX'wfa April. z,-^^Jptf October. 

xr'»j[»» May. %ybJpL r November. 

6"<-ty« June. ^^bJpbf, December. 

Names of tlie days. 
iifo' u tf Sunday. ^P'tzz'vPb Thursday. 

hvh^Z^fPb Monday. nw'A^ Friday. 

hrkgzi-cPl 1 Tuesday. ^ pu ,p- Saturday. 

%»pk£2*ufPI* Wednesday. (On) Tuesday hpkg^pPb* 

Words. 

ifiun part. ty»»finq_ able. 

f '»/>?. class, (irr/n^ J u*n-,ug[,l l ,uj next. 

< l % /f*-A' i^u) chapter.) UU^ fh P JI$n.,u%^ devout. 

%utt.iui^but captain. fa ufp»p begins. 

u,j£nqi. whole. it*> (ace), £M (dat.) me. 

U'"^"' Psalm. m»c.Mt&- M they have given. 

Exercise 85. 

\jnni_u*pn_ ftp Lutpnfiti nuui%lrplrnirpnpn% £- t QnuUnutup 
inuint^nju tun.iuC[$u tuJfiuU £-, \g*uiput* bppnpn p tru Qnc%fiu 
ilngapnpn.pt Wrffivp uttupt-njb uiu»uulrpbnL.npnpn. tTtuuu £-: 
fttupusu ntu^ul^iuhfth ou/n.uiunuhlrpnpn. tfutuu £■: \\juop 
W'fpf*//' t U r p9l'h oplt t-t \\n TJkufhJbtuiT tiyu %tuuntX ^pkVVb 
%tnttuitjlruipt \\iru J>wp__ ZJ'lfcT at ~ ^P"i' nt ~ k^ u •£*"? Unt -P^ 
nt^t/uPt Qappnpn. ^"'Pf-h utytuLfrputuarpp ^nu t?fiu bl?u rf-iuu 
inn wft \\utpntnu \p ♦ h%ut l. ^tuautp ^fibf- ^uipfii^pfih t \\fyntT }\ . 



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40 Lesson 21. 

at. fyptrtntrpftynu *)••* bpunuah tut ptatpft ttttsjup'lttrp £ Atr : *fiuibh~ 
uiutpb^utu (rJi* &*****■ wffifyuy ^{tbu-JU'^Pl* bptruniXtrptro uiut^ 
ptr^utu ujfiuifi pnusiTi \/pbp ^ n {'[ tn p'f &*- tfpbni. nt-flbpaptL 
Jkfy tuJpnqf^ Ifpltbui \ni-tjniffifynu <J»^« » l\>pu»vuuJjfi [tliu^ 
iputL.app^ % JErnutt- frutpfrq^ 1793 Qnebni.utp 2 1 pb « Qnif^ufhuk" 
tr^trbuifi ) Jipwhfiuutairusb , \\iLt*{pb/ fc!f>£huif» \}{iJtvuibuth be 
QntfCutl'L^u ^^f^butfi Qutlfnpbutlt , bpbub uti fyutpnn nuunu^. 
db& V VT u, i 9a hIZ&' uinm J \tppiuTbnub uth be \\utputtubtn tuatu 

\Pneptssutbutu t bpbaeph uii ^utt/ptstebutt t/utAutn.utbutu'Ubp trhx 
\^tutjJnu jf«t «§y • <}»£,•> ^o/*/ fi|X* 9 U^/** tntuultbcffoubpaptf 
»pwpni% cftrpOfih tnuipflh fct 1901 Qnelbnt.utp 1 [ib l^n ulptf* 
aumttbpnpip ipuapnt 

Translation 36. 

This man has 4'/ 3 pounds [of] pears for his chil- 
dren. Saturday is the last day of the week. My niece 
visited me [on] Wednesday. The days are not short 
in June and July. February is the second month in 
the year; August is the eighth. Henry VIII. king of 
England. (The) four is the half of (the) eight. Give 
me three pounds and a half [of] sugar. His nephews 
will be here [on] Friday. They have given the half 
of that cheese to my neighbour. When does that devout 
old lady go to church [on] Sunday? She goes at eleven 
o'clock and comes home at half past one. 

Twenty-First Lesson. 

Indefinite Adjectives. 

When used without a substantive, these words are 
pronouns.*) With a substantive, however, they are ad- 



mJku every. *ifb same. 

P»L»r all. Ji»u Jp t 4>bt_ *£ any, some. 

u.Jp U qf_ whole. f^mb u t what kind, of...? 

') See the footnote a ), 17*h lesson. 
*) See the 81st lesson. 



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Indefinite Adjectives. 



41 



"*rtz_ another. 
>ff>L* f —-pti_ other. 
fia.p*tpm%ifi.p each. 
j>-%f» jj, a few, some. 
Z?»» many, much. 
Z mm Jj, a great many. 
Jki £uA*l> several. 
.pmhfr how many? 
tyl*»4 how much? 
"L '&' L* • • no, not. 



^uunuti age; size. 
<[hl- S01TOW. 

nt.fiutfuni-fiJ-ft-% JOy. 

h tkh country. 
4>—-Z_ thorn. 
TPiyfyuL pen-holder. 
^pumnt.p^s wealth , riches. 

•up—nj— lark. 

p* r ^^ fault, 
thing. 



MMtcvtrf 9 mmtmtiQ , m%m%£ SUCh, 

— a. 
t »jng—% go many. 
ny-tunf, so much. 
fit. /&£.$ 'vf'^L* bppbSb 

certain. 
.pfe little. 

bp^mt^pu . . . u$i^ both. 

fn>± what? 
**}• which? 

Words. 

pu0K.u,p»u% dictionary. 
lt r n.%u. v t i enterprise. 
kp^uifmu$pn%yp young 

people. 
fain*!, rule. 

pu»ijiun.ni.p-fct% exception. 
j tU u[,u,b% t »^m% eternal. 
g**-P»n cold. 

P%^ nl 3, tu *r k has received. 
Jlrn-uib- dead. 



«»M person. 

Exercise 87. 

J^Jb'b fiutii fip thtuJuiliiulfn nubfit \^Jb*u <^uJViufy fip /»«_*. 
puifuni fi ht'ltbhpb nv. tlftjuibph nclbfit )\'lpt*rrt_ fy'tyfipp wnpiuui 
£-t (|* up nt-ptufmtufdfit-b jiui_fiuiu%tubuju b* Wj" ufinnuit 
*l* tt P l lP J* u 'bf' *fi* a f' nL P nt ^'P x ^iuut bpbfiplibp gnuput ub x 
\%L.psupuSu£fi€.p Jlupn^ ifp u fph (lOVeS) fybu/bppt f*>njtrp Jtvp ff.fr fy 
dlu^Luiuuignc but O/** UL*^" 1 J» a *^ r A° ufiiuii J ni%fi ftp fJ-utpn.^. 
tfiuuni.fl butbp u%ft }$j ufuuit ytt^ifit ffp^uttft O-fufi ntjb£-f/ht 
*£^> ifii B-ffufi bt. fyuinp tip iuuthfrp ntX(rffut }\utuufy t^bn$ubfi 
(fine) b-wqfify tfpx }\ju fij % np£utfytufu b ♦ n\.p b Jftuu ap^ut^ 
[ftuipt fl*-pfip .pbpmfyuturtt-P fiub JpU utt nuufiTt QJbp ^opbq*. 
puypp np uwAp Ifp p% tub fit |^lr <Y/7' ^"V' utnubp yn pliuibb 
ou/hfi ilp "cpfp ufh&bpnL. <jbui t t»'°tr* ttl^P ^ "Ut * fl* J £"*Y <# *- 
fippb (* UJn - UJ p ut 'u'u b % b^> /^> &bituuipljhbp\ 

') Nouns preceded by many, Jioip many ? etc. usually remain 
in the singular. 



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42 Lesson 22. 



Translation 



God is the father of all men. Every rose has its 
thorns. All the houses of this town are very high. 
Such a translation would be easy. Give me a few pens. 
Many a man is happy. Several (z?»») men have the 
same name. Each boy has received seven piasters. 
She had some mistakes in her translation. Both soldiers 
are dead. Certain books are not good for young people. 
The whole night was cold. No rule is without ex- 
ception. It is rare (<J*»^*.««^4«y) to have many good 
friends. Little wealth, little sorrow. That girl has no 
friends. Every man is mortal. What bird is that? It 
is a lark. A little boy had a great many pretty 
flowers in his garden. My sister has received a letter 
from a certain Mrs. Clarck. No man is without faults. 
Every day in thy life is a leaf in tlrp history. 

Twenty-Second Lesson. 

Adjectives. 

Adjectives, as in English, uniformly precede the 
noun which they qualify, and remain undeclined, ex- 
cept when used as substantives. 1 ) Ex.: 

^«#£ tfhnunp jfc a brave soldier. 

^'UL ""fig idle boys. 

^u»p$t$.um fizfau/is <£ a rich prince. 

$u upturn Jiuf^. iffc a poor man. 

$uspnu„u,% ,tu ui^uiuij, the rich (man) and the poor 
(man). 

^wp.^au.iskrfr nu ust^iuuJ^kp^ the rich and the poor. 

A noun may take the place of an adjective de- 
noting a material. Ex.: 

"«}/ AuMJluynjg Jf> a gold watch. 

u*fb—p- rt^L *%. & silver spoon. 

IV t *% J * em "ip u t—-t'i u u a P a * r of silk stockings. 

Many adjectives are roots as in English, such as: 

fuuy^m blue; i-fai.^ soft; i«y% broad; ^^ narrow. 



') In this case, they follow the 1st declension, save those 
ending in }. 



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Adjectives. 43 

But the greater number are derivatives, and may 
be known by the following affixes and suffioccs added 
to a substantive: — 

a) ~* — jy hope; -V?/" hopeless. 

-i — */£«Af »«/*/&«■* happiness; -ifyiWf un- 
happy. 

•»• — f.*^ beauty; f^*'/_ ugly. 

^ — ^mjn^pftA existence; t^«/ non-existent. 

•rj- — I'lfi colour; W-?«/* pale. 

T J. — pusrft fortune; r^F'—n unfortunate. 

h) -J-t — <jm // ,-j-.x / u % l u,Q, paternal care. 

~J~ r — {bm»»j~ r JJ*$*uu* ,r a a hurtful insect. 

«yft — &lu j:ug~ } \\ fk%ig.m%ft%k r teiTestrial animals. 

-»— f — ^«.^*»^-.*-*j. tjo[tt0tu(&$n%/r(t famous generals. 

I.JI — mpb^bfemX ,u n bp oriental nations. 

m \b — &»p$ m ik ihu.kp graceful manners. 

t-tt — {•""•^il '»** *5» a trusty person. 

mtr — j-uA^m^ p„*. r Jj, a rusty sword. 

•••-•»• — MfLiif^oY »$iittu»^tuinttbp sandy deserts. 

lr~j — 0v^.tuJu0%tf.l r m^ tj-ffii^lrft diamond earrings. 

{••L — ^'»4«l ^ P , u ig nLr delicious food. 

t^P* — WtLtP* k^p-i'-" woollen cloth. 

•»-{••»• — &mqff-~i>t* f.u*£*nLp flowery fields. 

•»«-*» — fnf*unut-*\ p-iun.iut.np dp a wise king. 

Adjectives*) denoting a nation are formed by appen- 
ding the suffix -J~V Ex.: 

ufuu/bm^mX tuwtnhptuujj, the Spanish war. 
^ F u»%,nui i ,u% iOrifiu ( ,.uv i , the French Academy. 
u-but/uA^Ji p,u%uMfe the German army. 
luufyifi^mX uiuuiuinupJfc the English navy. 

Adjectives denoting a nation's language terminate 
in t r p. or ~r^- Ex.: 

^"(/h^ j»* r pw%u*%ni.p-i l i.% Jp an Armenian grammar. 
P»tfigl'tV t ' «-p^u/i, nL pf,L%p the Turkish literature. 
P„*.u\r t \\ pujn.b p Russian words. 
m>/^- r (.t or -trV 1 itv^ ^ ne English language. 
jntJu-fiX »,mu»uiu^np ifp a Greek poem. 



f ) See the 18* 1 * lesson, Remark. 



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44 Lesson 22. 

Remarks. 

1. Most abstract nouns are formed from adjectives 
by appending the suffix — Pt JU * Ex.: 

ivr 1 ) blind. ^^...{ij-X blindness. 

.nfunup*) sad, etc. «^— pj-* sadness. 

2. There are a great many adjectives that require 
their complement in the Dative, Ablative or Instrumen- 
tal*), where in English they employ any one of the 
prepositions of, for, to, on, tvith, etc. or no preposition 
at all. Ex. : 

%s» uMp^ii/hf, 4 ifu.i>Jiu.w i ,»ij2hk-% he is worthy of 

reward. 

&{,% o3Lf»«#f« r £ <&y>7.«<A» the horse is useful to man. 

L usu,b r t*t n< i k% h h% a ib^^k 1 ^ many people are 
dissatisfied with their condition. 

%m i^'^ck * "if—-"^ he is deprived of living. 

faqn*[a ih or fig**.'** h S-«^f&*/»«£ ^ e basket is 
full of flowers. 

Words. 

fy^V :• heaven. $—*—& ripe. 

kp\%u»^u»Jl»p sky. «»$«#« unripe. 

u^b—ll wasp. ^.nphrntXkuy active. 

Jfrfwu, insect. «»^ virtuous. 

«&7»«#*r body. ^rf-Hrf* human. 

^*»^A soul. *u$yut-2_ stupid. 

<J^t« carpenter. $lkut,»guir»y silk, ren. 

?«/•*&? too1 - I 11 "/*!, fragrant. 

"b*2?« the Nile. <J../«,^««y eminent. 

^/»«««« advice. p u .%\-i< t lfc precious. 

a.utuutp- cup. putpblln. handsome. 



iyumi<iinii^iii^ fork. <J«»2Cfr^ agreeable. 

u/u^Bu^phr sculptor. **-/fy heavy. 

%\ plant. fy^a,*.^. heavenly. 



') See the law of permutation, lesson 9. 

*) As it is sometimes difficult for beginners to discover 
at first sight which case is to be employed, it has been 
thought advisable to assist them with practicle hints, whenever 
necessary. 



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Adjectives. 45 

tlLtniu^ metal. mtuapfm%f^ unhappy. 

tf.g,wmnt.% library. ^©/» mighty. 2?/»«"-»/» strong. 

ifpoiig religion. %mpf—Lup necessary. 

^u,£„i_pf,ii, bravery. jmpj^p fit. 

j>iuqppnLp[$L*it sweetness. n^tu%u»t.np noted. 

fL\ t uunpn*.pf,*_% disposition. %Jiuu alike. 

Exercise 39. 

\\p unpad* uuiuiniin apuuuiuuititupp f putpXp o tunapp at- 
fyu/buiu* nuiputappt ^mundb tntuudMrp mJbfrat ft'$i S^P » fccitr.. 
Xapp ur^tuu Lu t l lu !f3 ^uiundb Lbnuiu ndbffhp t ^tui&pp 
utput-atauju ^fru ""If- 'fi*b out ^oputpnipu nnph nt.uhruij at. 
lunutofllufi £1% tlpb 4"t <X\[tk utlfp tJbuiuuiLujp JftOuiui tlpb £-t 
}^iupn.i^u»jpb l^ausbap LutpA £« \j nni.iupn.fi unp ttpB PIL 
otLuiuiyuip lie <£uil£bffi out \yutntfjiuu ifui ^ L m \but a ul. £, l lu U3 
'^nn.pu u/btfiu^ £t \Xtl u uintub tutuncp £t \\jf- yf ,t - u f' IrpLutfd- 
a.nph-nauap nCblti fruipuutuu'nt-^ltu yutui tip tflruiutpuuuii ttriup-* 
l^fibiulfblrp Ll. ppnau/j nnuituu/blrp m.'ufi t Ipbp ujufput^qftU 
u%0 pnt.pbn hutnfiUbbp Itatbx \\JBru fCTO- tip nuuhnt^b n.uipp 
nublrguub k (has had) x * Z,iujl,p(;u j&qni.'u **«/" t„ V ^»k 
\nput ^"itppu t uibuipuian ^ntuiutuiu puiuutuuian&p t \P**p nL.*, 
unL.hu in putbp (college) uiuLifiap^b) ^pulbulrpt^b^ naptftuutrpfcuf 
tujutpuap^ru at, inubiupl^u Q-f'flpbpnt/ nnpi npuimni-b up ntAihi 
*\ 9 tu utJhu putbji juipiluip £t \\pobpp \iupyujcnp £ tftupn.ni.ut 
%uji[m^nu l(p a-ntfkp (praised) lp nfiuni.np'bapnt.u ^outgnt,^ 
PfttXp t 

Translation 40. 

The Nile is a large river. Henry is a good pupil. 
A good advice is precious. Miss Elizabeth is a dili- 
gent little girl. That low (#'«*-) house is on a high 
mountain. The sick count lives in a beautiful palace. 
The king had a gold cup in his hand. What had the 
handsome young man? He had a silver fork. The 
black eyes of that Armenian young lady are very fine. 
Michael Angelo was a famous sculptor, and Raphael 
San ^io was a great painter. Many plants have always 
green leaves. Those books are very useful and agree- 



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46 Lesson 23. 

able. (The) iron is a heavy metal. The rich are not 
always happy, and the poor are not always unhappy. 
The rich and the poor are alike before God. What 
beautiful blue eyes! England has a wise old queen. 
There is some delicious food on the wooden table. 
The German army and the English navy are mighty. 
The Turkish soldiers are brave. Warren was noted 
for the sweetness of his disposition. 

Twenty-Third Lesson. 

Degrees of Comparison. 

The two degrees of comparison are the compara- 
tive and superlative. 

The comparative is formed by prefixing -- fr^ more, 
or it is the simple form of the positive, — the latter 
by prefixing -4 1 — the most. 

Comparative. 
pwp&P high; -*4 t f i"»e*e higher. 
t^atk beautiful; —trf t^itabk mwe beautiful. 

Superlative. 
^Xmpmplp the highest 
mJ^Xm^^^ the most beautiful. 

Degrees of diminution are expressed by prefixing 
*— - 1. less, for the comparative, and ~4*~*»« «l least, 
for the superlative, as: 

o^iifu;^ useful; **— »t. ofuituftstp less useful; 

mJiXmX^m t o^miiif^ the least useful. 

Moreover, the adverbs £-t» \ m vl* hi-* and wl, 
give the adjectives the force of superlatives, as: 

J-jrJ or j*j} $u,pn±—n ttt/lf/ftr J L , an extremely rich lady. 

H-r or i— r J-p**liiih l Bi. ull s ( i t ,„ l jfc, a very diligent 
student. 

Remarks. 

English than is rendered in two different ways, viz. : 

1. When preceded by a substantive or pronoun, 
than is not translated, and the substantive or pronoun 
is put in the ablative case, as: 



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Degrees ol comparison. 47 

,u r l, L £ [fLvfiblx .u^bij, Ah- k t the sun is larger than 
the moon. 

tg.ut.% ffolAe f^ib p»*plp-$u. u ^ bu, thou art taller 
tlian I. 

>$$% iififylrpnkix lu^y^ i^tr r tC,M,/uou k t he is more eloquent 
than Cicero. 

2. It is translated by +-*> when the comparison 
is merely expressed by — 4jJ or *— -^ without an ad- 
jective following, as: -^ifi ««tf> %-j *~i ,»phr„,p t there 
is more gold than silver. 

3. When two different adjectives or verbs are 
compared with one another, than must likewise be 
rendered by +~i, as: 

, u % tui.b^ ir r £us%^ k +~i frn$lr>r, he is more happy 
than prudent. 

1-nttg $ut.&/fi fa f"°"fa> +~* {£ f-f('^k^9 you speak 
more than you work. 

4. As... as or so v . as is rendered by -y*yf 
. ..» r i»f or by the postpositions ...^.f 1 ) or ...^t-, 1 
and wo£ 50... as by -t. -y*irf ••• "rirt or ••• trf ') !••••» as: 

that girl is as handsome as innocent. 

■My* iuiuptnl;a/i Jilrttp%p% V**T niutntut.i^in t; , 

our garden is as fruitful as yours. 

these novels are no£ so interesting as those. 

££» »nnt*bp tifjif- luiugututh'h V»f nwttJitt jk i 

your house is no£ so high as that palace. 

5. When a relation between two comparatives is 
expressed, the English the . . . the before them is 
translated by »' p *~* . . . -yW~*, as: 

~t+ mX ?±"-' n t "HHpufo !»*$., the sooner, the better. 

Words. 

4?«l?g street. qn^tupp- gay. 

^fiittiytuptufy square. i*m*fl&£ the former. 

"vwffa stork. 'ttr^a the latter. 



') See the 7* h lesson, b). 



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-iS Lesson 23. 

(«7»f. class. tiLUM. »&uc$$kp studious. 

•Ibtra means. */»£# elder, bpfo-tifi* eld- 
tpmJT money. est. 

/*/!»<-r hill. f/#«««^ younger, fou$ubpu,~ 
^^« valley. f-^/fc youngest. 

um^u$ f ^ world. "«v sharp. 

l^uBu^mp lead. 'ipo-byf-gfo amusing. 

tfl^#»<. bee. 4r w< > u '' i 'tf'£. instructive. 

^/f«#iT silk-worm. &,*„#/> intelligent. 

1"^" duke. ^«/» or -««.fcf deep. 

M—tf» parents. ^»atqu*gu0£$»p polite. 

t^uM^u,^ tulip. $u»%^.u* P ui or -fib quiet. 
iu>ji> broad. %*i_ narrow. f—n-usutp ambitious. 

Exercise 41. 

tynnnyi* Jiv/b t* ^puittpupuilfp utu&i/i £i"/b £» [\ulrf»% tup*, 
bnvpr^rb iuubi[i p-uibLt^iL^h £-, ziuyo uiiLuid*sttsi.n tuiflirhuiprush*. 
l^uttp^iU Jhuiutith £-s \\jh bpj$utuiutitpii n ftp psvpbyuiJk'h utLUt/t 
tptt-usppj- 4r * d w^l ol l\^uspii.utU ubiinpn [ihbpu L*U. utrtiuO/ihti 
tuubtji ni^uaciwutu^p £ M*"** dbptiftlbpz \uttnubputu.njh untpu 
l|.<l)/f^c# ^f fi'bui/ffi bpfttfuti^nfU bqpopu ./»«£* ^""Y^// 
jjvifi futbuiufcp kj>* tit/"* P u Ud "^ h' 4 u *{*v{d' tunui<Mib 
k > ifc^/' luuibwul^n tujb^uttfi unup ^k np^uttft fatT itt/bffiu t 
<IJu//#o tip On abb pp tutWltuaiuti. upOnoltbttb L*hi \^%np bnjtop*, 
Jk*h uiub^ ijpuitT niXfi^gt || £_, bu $ufL^ui$fi (SO much) 
i^ptutT £niX(itTt l\jij- ^trq^bwlifth (author) l^"/> bpfut^ 

u^pncp^uVubp (works) nduffgt n'^, sip* «#ty»««fc ( so *nany) 

£nt-1Ufu/ % t £nuhp Ltutanu^b utt-btfi ^utt-tuuiiuphiT £» fl'* JJi LL%^ 
q.u/hfi tuubifi <£iut-UJUiu*pfiJ % £ uuiU pat-lint W^ju ffi/IPp wubrfi 
uftouiranLaft* £■ ouflb ^pui^utbu.h*t \fn.nt-uipa. avL.biJi Oui%otu^p 
£ nutb tfintugfti {( pouih puspXp XpiLiPjX P[" L PP* tujliputb 
p»np I b'pituy I S nt lb u$ P x W'lfiB uttt ^"f-P \\buutp^ £""fa 'fa**"* wulzp 
kl* x \\tuLu»*ji aorquthb (fine) htunfcu dpU £♦ ?" i -?* a '^P **"-** if* 
tpbtpubfi £• *[** t i ,t lP t" 9 /"!' butqliublrpniXM tuJb*husa.bnui%[ih £t 
\}i*kg " t IP'' g UP u trpbuat-bbpuni. uiutpbuutb £i Z^iuittu ^opbqy 
popJkn. uiubi[i bbp £« 



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Regular Verbs. 40 

Translation 42. 

The morning was warm ; the evening was warm- 
er. That was the warmest night of the year. This 
church is higher than the other. Mary is the happiest 
girl in the world. Napoleon I. was the greatest gener- 
al. (The) iron is a very useful metal; it is more 
useful than (the) gold and (the) lead. The most useful 
insects are the bee and the silk-worm. This house is 
not so old as the other. The duke's palace is more 
high than broad. My parents are less rich than your 
friends, but they are happier and more contented. 
The richest men are not always the happiest. Our 
cat is not so strong as your little dog. Henry is as 
idle as his younger brother. The 22 nd of June is the 
longest, and the 22 nd of December is the shortest 
day of the year. Mr. Aram is a very polite man; he 
is politer than his eldest brother. The quieter a life 
is, the happier it is. The longer the days, the shorter 
the nights. 

Twenty-Fourth Lesson. 

Regular Verbs. 

The verb consists of two elements, viz. the root 
and the terminations. The former is always invariable 
in regular verbs ; the latter, however, undergo certain 
variations, by which persons and tenses are distinguished. 

By the termination of the Infinitive Mood we dis- 
tinguish three different forms of conjugation, viz. : 

The first conjugation, with the Infinitive Mood 
ending in t^* as: *-e^O to work: 

The second conjugation, with the Infinitive ending 
in f L . as: f»o»} L to speak. 

The third terminating in -^» as: i ut rt m L to read. 

Formation of the tenses. 

The present tense of the Indicative is formed from 
the Infinitive by changing its final ^ into * and pre- 



') In this grammar all the variable terminations of regular 
verbs are in the paradigms printed in Italics. 

Elementary Armenian Grammar. 4 



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BO Lesson 24. 

fixing the syllable { t , as: «^l t° love, \t,-h^ s I love; 
f»o»\ L to speak, (/» fl*o«tf I speak; i'TT^L to read, {^ 
^p^mX I read. 

The Imperfect is formed from the Present b}' 
changing its final W or \* into {-J, and — ** into -yj, 
as: fr» ?'vMi; fe £o«4J; ft. Hnf-vf- 

The Perfect 1 ) is formed from the Infinitive bj r 
changing its terminations fc-j., J^ and -^ into t$f , tj-j 
and «••>£» as: iif—iuft^ to finish, it—wwp\rit\ p^" u ^Il 1° 
dwell, to live, /A-^tj-y; £«"/rL ^ pl a y> ("""Lrot* 

The y?rs£ or simple Future and the ^/Jrstf Conditional 
are formed by prefixing tjff to the Subjunctive 
Present and Imperfect, which are, in regular verbs, 
the same as the Indicative Present and Imperfect 
without {&, as: 

mft*r\ f.-fcs I sliatt praise; if tJ t»j}l I should praise. 

The formation of the tenses in the other moods 
will be seen in the paradigms. 

First Conjugation' 4 (ix~-tl x l>-rr"*-W Jl )- 

Indicative Mood (o«<s-i~t-> <1 br u I). 
Present Tense (*ht'ti m j d^-^-^-f). 
Singular ((br-$f). Plural (e- r x ~i0- 

im "fo^f*) I love. fe» «/t/»t** we | 

„ uj> r V» thou lovest. „ «^/»tf you J love. 

n ufol he or she loves. „ "foil they | 

Imperfect (ll*{— r~ p ). 

fe «/t/»tf I loved. fo» "faty* we J 

„ «/^ r thou lovedst. „ -hi}* you J loved. 

, "hh he loved. n «^/4p» they | 

Perfect (i|~i.~ r fr-. L ) . 

"A'M I loved. "fohF 1 * we I 

"ArM? ^ ou lovedst. "h^^U you > loved. 

«^/»l-5 he loved. "teW 1 they | 



See the footnote, page 21, 1). 

For the formation of the compound tenses, see the 13*h 
lesson, Eeraark 1. 

s ) See the footnote, lesson 18, 2). 



i 



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Eegular Verbs. 51 

Future (lit-- H)- 

n \^ ..fifis I shall | -ihl "A* x * we shall I 

'„ "M- thou wilt J love. n «M* you will J love - 
„ «M he will ) * "M x they „ ! 

Firs* Conditional (R-M~* Ui-^W- 

iM "ArtJ I should ) . -thl "frty* we should | 6 

, "Mf r thou wouldst | £ „ "Art?* you would J > 
„ «Mr he would ) - „ «Mf x they „ | ^ 

Imperative Mood (^-/-m-a b^t-i). 

p..'^ M ^t./ fo£ we love. -ft* 1 * fe* ws love. 

»A# love (thou). «fr*rt'* love (you). 

p-'t «ft+ fe/ 7w" love. P-'t. *ft4* W them love. 

Subjunctive Mood (U-r-r-r— -H 1 bi-^-l)* 
Present (*uM"v)- 
- r -A*/ that I I -r "A* 1 * tint we | 

1. "M- * thou J love. „ "M* » you J love. 
„ «M „ he I „ «M* „ they I 

Imperfect (C>{— r~ r)- 

*r -Mi * te * ! should j ^ *r »frtyt that we should | 6 

„ „ thou wouldst J > n »fo\rl+ * you would \> 

„ he would ) ~ „ "MJ X „ they „ I ~ 



Participles (t^r^ir-PM^r)- 

Present «^/»*t. loving. 

Past »fv~> 9 »hh loved. 

Future "fo^tr- to or about to love. 

Conjugate in the same manner: 

jwpfVi to respect. »K'ipc^L to clean. 

fcfyl-L to forgive, to pardon, '"«^l to sweep. 

^t-Lto buy. «*r«4f, to learn, to study. 

Ip'i-t to make. -«-7>L to want. 

o/»^Ht to bless. /"I-l to hear. 

4* 



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52 Lesson 4 J4. 

Remarks. 

1. There is only one way to render the expression : 
/ love, I do love and I am loving, viz. fe -faWt — I was 
loving or I used to love = fc «^/»W » ©tc. 

2. The prefix {& (in the case of monosyllabic 
roots $— t as: J— /«*«/* I weep, }•*- ^«"/* I come, J— ««*««r 
I give) appears only in the Present and Imperfect In- 
dicative. The following verbs do not take it even in 
these tenses; l>f I am, f r X— ^ I can, f^vl-s I know, 
n^ufcj* I have. 

3. Jc is apos.trophed (#') before a vowel, as J'*/»- 
tkf I sing*; yi—nkJ* I hate; J , «f.£*«r I want. 

4. The English I am to or I Aaua to is translated 
by the Future Participle compounded with the Present 
and Imperfect Indicative of the auxiliary verb V x t as: 

Vahram is to learn German, 

I have to write a letter, 

Words. 



*ri,ri2##i.f (pron. ^fctf-) spar- 


"fuPt^ report. 


row. 


#p«A linen. 


utuJht-ii noise. 


iY«""iV picture. 

fc*/4 L to forgive, to pardon. 


unfurl nightingale. 


,£, r7 ^ty rose-bush. 


syu*£u»ayiMA$rj_ to defend. 


«y'*y»«*!/? debt. 


yk«r|. L to drink. ^/^to sew. 


q-u,(,b£,,M-r beer. 


ty*uft L to invent. 


J2iuutkfiu*ju$ur£_ drama. 


%l i iuf\\_ to paint. 


/£'/««- language. 


^^^ L to sell. 


il*ibk boot. 





Exercise 43. 

A"£ (whom) ^£ ufaibui \,u fe ufchrtT bt£ptujpui 0*^^- 
/ju/lr ^/i jutpt±k ftp m-unLtjfifbbjtni iplt'itp £p utrpwb'hg Jhp 
tLu/u&ppt *)wiM» ^/» tl'kp &l*p ^pus^uabo.'htrpp t j£b?fqni-^hlrpp 
Lp pflhttli ftpUhg PlfrhpP* \\uu>nt.tub- op^bhg \\pptu^tui/pt 
^nJat-L tTn Jutrgfihu tfintpmftb Jhft [}n{t/ujfyn fy'lrpu.fcp tfuip^ 
n.b1»*-njh ifpuijx f» %£_ uf[$uifi t^pkg * 'ifUtt/tu^ tfjt ujfiuifi y ptrift 



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Second Conjugation. 53 

*\t"p£ Jhn tuutputpbppx Dp/it'ty* q[\uutnuiuh- Ire tflrp phLIrp^ 
%bppx \}tntuuni.^ffu ftlnn uit-tl? uLlbuiubnt \% 1»« unJpirint. kj** 
|f*^trp P-nt-pnlrptrb uni/pbgnL. h%p ire \\JbpfrfyuJtjfi1b ^tujlwpt^h 
itni/pfrtrtL. £ t |» !»« n%irtnc ^rfittt *£uAj[i tip J?"»p Ltrn.utu atrfr*. 
#/»c k(*kt f* ***//! Sfot *£"*? tnuibX nXlriyfiht Q up £ uatiuuiut.nppt 
[\tr uh%truibn ttifrutfi tliupp^pt \\utnnt.iuh- on^bl? Jkp M»n«-tr/fi 

Translation 44. 

What do you want? I want some money. He 
defends his honour. I shall drink a cup of beer. 
Shakspeare wrote many dramas. Fulton invented the 
steamboat. What have you to sell? We have to sell 
our horses. What will they buy? They have to buy 
Otto's French grammar; they are to learn that lan- 
guage. I come from the vineyard. Respect God's law, 
if you will be happy. Let them study their lessons. 
Let him clean his boots. Did you hear the report? 
No, but my elder brother has heard it. Who sews 
this fine linen shirt? My younger sister sews it. Who 
has painted that fine picture? The old painter has 
painted it. God bless our school. 

Twenty-Fifth Lesson. 



Second Conjugation (b* r f r - r T" U*Tr w *"J l £ 4 - t )* 
Indicative Mood (u-C'-M-* bt-M)- 
Present Tense (*uM~.> d—'-M)- 
Singular (btrtf)- Plural (8-fMJ)- 

l ir fuo..\s I speak. tp /«o«tt.* we | 

n £o«J- thou speakest. „ /"°«f* you J speak. 

„ fa"} he speaks. „ /uo»}X they I 



Imperfect (U>f— »— r)- 

)okest. „ /"otttyi 
v fuou± r he spoke. „ /fc*o«tJx they. 



l lfL /ko«ty I spoke. !(£ /"<>'4JW we I 

n fo»^ r thou spokest. „ f»o»ty+ you J spoke. 



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5± Lesson 25. 

Perfect (M— r- r^L)* 

A**«t:>-y I spoke. fao,±2~\+ we | 

A*o<4>j~ r thou spokest. £o«t 5 ~* you J spoke. 

£o«(.j— he spoke. A' "^- 1 they | 

Ft*/wre (ivj-m^J). 

-.£.,.£ ^.o«p I shall j^ ^tJ H l * we shall j^ 

„ fuoSl- thou wilt J g „ A"»«i* you will J $ 

fa*} he will ) 6* „ f»o»}l they „ | S* 

JVr^ Conditional (p-H-* Uy--**)- 

^j n j^ faoutyit we should 
© „ ^o«(.Jf you would 
& „ /..-«* they „ 



n 



n t^ A^tf I should 
„ A^tJr thou wouldst 
^o«tr he would 






Imperative Mood (4r—ft->~J~x bir 1 -})' 

p-t, A*o«J/ fc* me speak. A"»«fW fctf «s speak. 

^o«t speak (thou). A>o«|p 9 |.'+ speak (you). 

pj t A*©«J fof him speak. p-'i. /«o«Jx let them speak. 

Subjunctive Mood (u*r» c —r- .— .J«*t b^i-j). 

- r ^o«£s that I J ^5 -r l uo "i x * that we j^ 

„ £o«J- „ thou }g „ £*»h n you J 8 

» A-°"f „ he ) ^ „ j»ou}X „ they ) 5? 

Imperfect (u*J— »— r) # 
„/, £©«{.£ that I should | ^ "/» A"«tJ** that we should 1 44 

„A"«tyr » thou wouldst j $ „ A"'4f * „ you would! $ 
„ A—+r i) he would I & „ A'—W 1 i) they » I & 

Participles (£V--*frir-W~ u *-r)* 
*iitf J-V (Present) A">«-t. speaking. 
B^jI-l (JR»«0 A""~> spoken. 
H^-^x^ (Future) A»°«+ir- to or about to speak. 

Conjugate in the same manner: 

^"Uilu to shine. *'«y/Jl to look. 

^ z /„^„,j L to labour, to work. j"t^L to be fatigued. 
""V'Il to live. «Y""*-^Ltoliedown,togotobed. 

ffr-f/t to dwell. A"r^L to think. 



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Second Conjugation. 66 

Words. 

,*,., r lr,»f f blackbird. ^h, UV u%^}^ to obey. 

fu%l np ir%[, apple-tree. j-r* ,u ktL to attack. 

««-«'y»} robber. fnnntutn^^ to rob. 

nC-Jf*^ traveller. ^««^l ta please. 

wifiujf, desert. ^ w iktL to flourish. 

pk that. ^*-'i"ib for. J-t^n^ to smile. 

«,,i i ,» ttr n t .p[,L-'i, printing. k^r^^C) to think, to pre- 
V u'un'i.^> them. sume. 

z*?r < l m k u 'L hwl to thank. 

Exercise 45. 

W'klt^V^' ktL l" ou Kp x H£_» St/'i tru (tmtngbpk*^ klL 
ptoujttTt Q,bp ^ u (JpP nt -P ktL pl nu kb* A U /JI IU ^"- dtujnu tuiu 
tftnnngfth u%f kp_ f^ tu kf^' * U^w^A^nntr^? ^'h ut auih n.u in*. It'll 
fipb*hg m.unigfr/barpnL.'bt H,/" uinaiuui bpfttntuuutpnp b'vuipiuiuift 
uin.titug tutttfitt-Lftt Wuutnbrpp l^n ifiuti/fSu Liuutnjtn bplshuiLui^ 
tlutplitt Jnttttx fruttfp ouibp lilt tttputli it* tun It tip t "£u*tn tna'hitib- 
hiT) rltt/iITt ncflnt-fy^ufiu tutun.fyf*i ^nt-nbtTt ||\y» l^n *huijkfipx 
\ubinpb^i until tlptui trpu.ntt uuipbrutbbti Lp%tut^ftx *\ 9 tufit junp\l? 
lit- uituui a-nph-^r * Q*-tunwuulrpp j tup & tali Iratvh 7\ut*fu.npn!bbpnuh 
tfpuuj I**- bnnntuut&gfiti qu/unbpx |» Ir* u nt-ul^px ^uiabrg^ro utmi 
lib A pi nun fit t tlhittih lit. '//'/'£' 'umifluli tip luhtnh tipbtPt 
tjfn.fi! btltubpb ^btupbn uttututi pnt-fiUfiuup 1436/^* 

Translation 46. 

Our teacher speaks four languages. Good children 
obey (to) their parents. When the general commands, 
the soldiers are to obey. The sciences flourished in 
Italy in the 17 th century. Crusoe lived on a desert 
island. The child looked at its mother and smiled. 
The brother and sister were good, they obeyed (to) 
their parents and worked. That boy has learnt the 
Spanish language in a short time. When did you buy 



') i|<vf»&fr<r I think, sometimes takes the prefix It, anp 
sometimes not. It t—plbtr expresses an opinion with rather more 
confidence than faipbbiT. 



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56 Lesson 26. 

that picture? I think (that) I bought it two years 
ago. We thought (that) you were in Paris. Will j r ou 
drink a glass of beer? No, thank you, for I have 
drunk a glass of wine. 

Twenty-Sixth Lesson. 



Third Conjugation (b t t m t T l^"f r "^Ff - 1 )' 
Indicative Mood (u-C« r ~*-.j-.t btr*~J) • 
Present Teme ("blri-J d—^-H)' 
Singular (btrtf)* Plural (e-fMJ) • 

k A""t~ r I P^y. Jt fr-i? x * we j 

r> £~vr~ thou playest. „ fa-n*** you > play. 

n /usitqmj he plays. „ £s—y~x they | 

Imperfect (uty- r- r)» 

$t A-tl-vJ I played. J t A"**rd x + we j 

w fa«"i?jfo thou playedst. „ A"»'£vf+ you / played. 

„ A"»£» r he played. „ A""'Z_-vJ x they I 

Perfect (i|-^-. f l— L ). 

fawqmjt I played. /u^qm^Xj, we j 

/u.u q ~2t t thou playedst. A""ZT9f+ y° u 1 played. 

fl"»'i-p he played. A" l *'zr:rf I they I 



fWuw (u«j»».tf). 



•^•rA fr»—i?f I shall 
n fuui.^m thou wilt 
^ fuivtfmj he will 



. <yA m A A"-"/r** we shall J • 
^ n b"-t?+ you will 1^2 

^ „ A"-^ they „ ) <* 



Fir** Conditional (P-H~* Bhr-tf). 

. ; J*.f l»»"i-A I should \ t nl*rH uu "Lr:t x * we should 

„ fa»'irAt thou ( £ „ A"*^* you would . ^ 

wouldst [^ ? * 

^ fu.u.^f he would ) „ f uu *, i ~j}\ they „ 



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Third Conjugation. B7 

Imperative Mood (4 f «./~>~J~x b^l-j). 

. P-'t. t»"»'i~f let we play. ^«# 7 -:x* Ze^ as play. 

f"*?? play (thou). fau^-fii. play (you). 

JU'^ f.« n let him play. JU'i. ^ wy -.t ht them play. 

Subjunctive Mood (Ot-f-f -• — J~* br"' 1 -})' 

- r /»/// 7 -/ /ft-tf I | . -J. fi,,„^Ji4. that we j . 

r ^«y- w thou J^ „ /u.« 7 ~f ^ you 5^ 

7i A""W „ he ) ^ „ £„, 7 -.l „ they J^ 

Imperfect (U*J~i— r)- 
• r [,,,», r: \ that I should J - r /«w 7 ^^ MaJ we should] 
„ A'*"/-^r n 'tou ( j>> „ /'"»/-;}♦ „ you would /^ 
wouldst j^ te 

„ [u, UfLrt that he would) „ f""Tr^ x n they „ ) 

Participles (c>r w, - 1 ^tr , -W*" u ^r)* 
(Present) *utf{~/ ^Mf^^-i, playing. 
(Fa*/) U^t-t/ fa»vv~} played. 
(Future) UL-j~.-\l % ^«^-l- to or about to play. 

Conjugate in the same manner: 

#"7»7--L to read. /u%y.*. L to laugh. 

£"7~L t° swim. ,/««.«-.!, to hope. 

«"/~L to grind. /^ ,<l ~l (pron. tii t -" t L) to wash. 

^."YrL t° twinkle. f/«%~ L to try, to endeavour. 

^'"TTL to cough. f-#f#*.~ L to roar. 

Remark. 

Verbs in -^ preserve - throughout all the Moods. 
The present and past participles generally take an addi- 
tional syllable derived from the form of the Perfect 
(fftuu$iuf$tr0tff ) t as i tf"p*i- tm ^ n i_ or £"7»7" , j^7»» Ifutgiq-m^itihr . J/he 
Passive Voice (see less. 32) also exhibits this additional 
syllable. 

Words. 
[,,„$„,[,„,{, cook. hfthnnihiJt ridiculous. 

""l?vhp- mill. itiiutyuipb- vain. 

tt/yopkiytuii Qx2j , "i ,u u it i'"' 1 ' mill" tiy[iti%i£t$it( queer, 
er. ^mm#» 7 /# raging. 



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58 Lesson 27. 

fuiui.wp darkness. bvVru ^° send. 

"tkiu^utm$uJ$uptu battle. t{iu*pu$ui^^ dispel. 

p%^. u %op- cannon. ^/^«4x to knit. 

L „i.u0ju0 P ,u (t „u^l, washer-wo- Jl^p-^ to beg. 

man. J£% }«*/«£fc Jfri. utL across. 

tk/* r J^l(lr, i i; 4 i, linens. i»»^kp he had no . . . 

©*'«#«. soap. J«i.t>w<jM beggar, ph**. though. 
-P—S drawing-room. 
,»pjl.,fe (pron. ts*pj£—fcp) corn. 

Exercise 47. 

h Lj'/» l^n ^uipiLuitTt Yfrfylpy Ujuiuidht-P^ubn Iftvjtijuiijuib LtTi 
\ua^uinutttit uat-nAp uinutut Hjiit |*tr£#i«. [utii^ tvtjf'p i Ylj'fr 
Lhuituuinb br it hutuMUuin tilth uiiiu/hqwL &bt-(r finish Jj»**»J ptuq.u*tjp t 
<*\utjb tutu luutnnirn ) '/""i/ba^t* t PPI^S^B ^"~ t f" t *{ lu " n "£4tf! '//'- 
ptritat-Uiit fuuiuuipnt ^ftt-uihiLti Ln ^utauipi -guiyuiuiuiduiputn 
Ijuiuttuiifc £/ ' ♦ P'b'f-tvtiQfJ'hlritii Lit iinsLutjffct \aL.uitju*puifiai.^pu 
ft I * uifiuifi inuuipx jjJ»ittlluLLii^l»Lupu u^utjt inuuijt % /"'£/# 
oAwift %nulsl~tt ♦ utuuiuuit-aiin f< u I>(['> r tf{' n [* Lpl^nu J*—> oAuiit- 
n*ii^t ^uH-uiutul } t jitL.uui % uhnl£x 

Translation 48. 
Do yon believe in (to) God? I am a Christian, 
Sir, and every Christian believes in (to) God. Why 
is this girl laughing? She is laughing at the ridiculous 
manners of that vain lady. What was lie reading? He 
was reading the poetical works of Longfellow. His 
sisters were knitting their stockings in the drawing- 
room. In Lord Byron's letter to his mother, we read 
that he swam across (of) the Dardanelles. What does 
the miller grind? He has ground the corn. That 
beggar begs bread. Alice will try to learn her lesson, 
though it be very difficult. 

Twenty-Seventh Lesson. 

The negative forms of the verbs. 

The negative of the Present and Imperfect Indi- 
cative is formed by prefixing the negative of the 



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The negative forms of the verbs. 59 

auxiliary verb 1 ) to the Infinitive by changing its 
final l into p In the 3 d pers. sing, of the Present 
the {• before a verb beginning with a consonant is 
changed into J . Ex. : 

Present Tense. 

Singular. Plural. 

£s <£,,(,& i, r I am n ot working £** ^ph-k^ we are not| t*> 

ifr" » thou art n » *♦ -J y° u » n [I 

u l „ he is „ n .it 1 ^ ^ey „ „ J g 

Imperfect. 
^ffr^flwas not | «> ^V^"/**^ we were not) g> 

•j-fr v thou wast not >:§ <&}+ „ you „ „ |:§ 

ttr „ he was „ J S £p. „ they „ „ ) I 

The negative prefix of the remaining tenses is i_. Ex. : 

Perf. t,«f-"/»*-£#^ t ijt"('^fyfc i ifr'T^A'/' e ^ c * I did not 
work, etc. 

Fut. ••il»tnfi ^.itphbiT, «yA mv A ^"/»^^««i etc. I shall 
not work, etc. 

In tenses formed by a participle and the auxiliary 
the negative prefix ^ is attached to the auxiliary and 
not to the participle. Ex.: 

Pret. Perf. ?.«/»£«»^ ^t/\ f.»/t&-«»&- ^«#, etc. I have 
not worked, etc. 

Plup. ^nphu,h ^, ^, r ^/<^ t£/tj»» e ^c. I had not 
worked, etc. 

Second Fut. f.«/»&««& «y^m^ ipiu"' r t etc. I shall have 
not worked, etc. 

The negative particle for the 2 d pers. of the 
Imperative is not t_ but 4'. The form of the verb in 
that person sing, is derived from the Infinitive by 
changing its final ^ into r> an d the Plur. from the 
2' 1 pers. of the Present Indicative without Jc Ex.: 

Singular. 

1 st pers. P»i_ w't^l*^ 1°^ me not work. 
2 d „ ilf f.'r^t'r do not (thou) „ 
3 d „ A*"^. t<f-"/»^4- let him not „ 



') See lesson 18, Remark 2. 



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1 st 

2 d 

Oil 


pers, 

n 


o rt 


77 



60 Lesson 27. 

Plural 

wpklrtig let us not work. 
i/p ii»[,bk£ do not (you) work. 
P'"L wp^M let them not work. 

Words. 

Jluit n u% clotted milk. t»&Vi to shut. 

•»kp cream. #«i#4 L to hate. 

f«/."i«^ estate. «#/»«/i L to reject. 

^kplutti tailor. gkaiplL to pay. 

ifhp.upl^nL. coat. musuimttfctiu'by.^ to answer. 

i^rr evil. fc£«4- L to throw. 

{swiM^uiir enough. ^U- L to fear. 

Xw^^Wj/fi^ to prefer. ?"^h. t° praise. 

tP^l to milk. /swi*-.^ to open. 

fj»Tlr L to break. ^#» t ^u» 4 it is cold. 

Exercise 4!). 

t|*u«&/ii.tr ^tjP uftphpt n'> t tfftT uftphrp* bu fpTbtufiipbui^ 
pas/ % virgin t Wuiusum.^fi'L hnthi Lptrux i\' >% £P ^floy- '"*" 

sufitnf, l(pkp uybfr l»Pk q- n hg 4P—bia[L«uf'4> i^tfl* 1 II V. 

L nut pay u.uiLtuatM*hu t \}U *£rninpoafi qujju ♦ LutpbhiT iJ^u/^4" 
fyninphtji <f%nt-iLp Jjf iLtitjbfi* u^uiutnu^uihn u_nijl?i *\*nun.n up 
p tub tut*, unt-ptn £i |itr*m. Lit {imI//lu*j t ^^ [tihiLuip* y/» tfiuuipi 
\p/i uiutko &Lp pphutJ^uirpp* Q^ly* Jkptfbp -yq- *uuiuint-£pp. 
tufitnfi *iuu»h1bo Jbp PfbiuJfiubpni *\+hrp£uilsn tujitnft jjrtupfc 
tflrpuipLat. in. % J> tM *u f l[' >b jnuuutp np s/ZCwpiiU n putt/ pi \fb\n l. 
pnt-uhrpbu £$y» [uoufin t *£u/btjfi ^bU % ufiuiirp "{Jf- [baniXx \yfi 
uppJjrp typp* ututira^u tpMijhx 

Translation 50. 

Will you not buy an estate in Greece ? No, I shall 
not buy an estate in Greece, I have bought a house 
in Constantinople. If he is rich, why does he not 
pay his debts? Let us not judge. Why did she not 
answer the letter of the mother? Because (^«««A f/») 
she had no letter-paper [in] the house. Children, do 



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Pronouns. 61 

not play with my watch. Do not throw stones at (to) 
the bird's nest. Let us not fear, but (let us) hope in 
(to) God. Does the teacher praise the pupils? No, he 
does not praise them (7"A»V) ; they are not studious. 

Twenty-Eighth Lesson. 



Pronouns. 

The Armenian pronouns ( f h*/»«A«ci>) are divided 
into five classes, viz.: 1. personal, 2. demonstrative > 
3. possessive, 4. relative, 5. indefinite pronouns. 

Declension of the personal (-A)X-J-.x) pronouns. 

l 8fc person (a- 14 A). 

Singular (btrtf). Plural (6-frMf)- 

Nom/ t"» I. JLfy we. 

Ace. ij>» me. •/*? or n^tJ) us - 

Gen. /«/* or l»f^> of me. Jtp or Mrf** of us. 

Dat. fa* or p>h-ft to me. ^i_ or Jl"ib to us. 

Abl. ^w«£ or fik from me. »%»£ or Mlk from us. 

Inst. fi^n,^ with me. .ib^n.^ with us. 

2 d person (p.. '|4A). 

Nom. i»*i, thou. t^"v? you. 

Ace. 4*l>t_ or *i4»^i_ theo. <*£^ or t^^^_ you. 

Gen. 4?»*. or^«^f>% of thee. <*fy or <*£/i^fc of you. 

Dat. ^^^ or #t"ib to thee. **£_ or ^ib to you. 

Abl. ^tryJk or «/f*fc£ from <**7«£ from you. 

thee. 

Inst. ^^i*P»*L with thee. lt* n JUq_ with you. 

3 a person («|«. 'hfrA). 

Nom. /&fy? ; a* or *»fy&{«» he, /&/»£fy? ; •ubt»% lt g they. 

she, it. 
Ace. 7^fy? j ^/* # or tftfl'fifyiu ibptfiq* j iu»iin%^ them. 

him, &c. 

') ^ before a pronoun beginning with a consonant is 
pronounced ex. 



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62 Lesson 28. 

Gen. fa or /&/»**»; »&»e of h^d) «•***# of them. 

him, &c. 

Dat.^/»*fc; -%*p to him, &c. fo^a) —%*%g to them. 

Abl. foJt', *«M* from him, h^if^] *»% n % a Jk from them. 

&c. 

Inst. h d '"L\ ufuu^ with fa y *'9 J " t L\ ,*%„%#,/;,£ with 

him, &c. them. 

Remarks. 

1. The second person plural is employed (for both 
sing, and plur., like j/ow), as in English. Ex.: F%i»yt» 
4j|?# how are yon? ""/^ *•/* or l\p, I am or we are well. 

2. The second person singular is usual among the 
common people. It is also used by near relatives and 
intimate friends. Ex.: ^»urf f i* fe »fvi?« ib« t papa, do 
you (dost thou) love me? /fr^A «"£"»«r *«> "fokji,,, why 
are you (art thou) sad, my dear? 

3. The English it ("»*') , )> when referring neither 
to a person nor to a thing, is omitted in Armenian, 
as: it is true, a^y?«/»^m £; U is cold, #»«/•«» £» who is 
it? «£ 4; # is I, you, they, b» *«/*, ^««^ ^* »-^»^ m* 

Words. 

^.ttj^hnif umbrella. ^««^l t° ca M- 

< t f l u CU M%„ a parlour. fc«/£#ty L to resemble. 

piupbu compliment. tf«,*/£-. L to know. 

^'a'^'L watering-pot. n^'Pr^L to sup. 

*£««{ strawberry. /"«"jA4t. to knock. 
*»«*£ almond. }«^ handle. a-£Hi„ to beat. 

Jlitp^tP intimate. ««.«f.t L to water. 

,u%opi» hungry. «/?'} L to be cold. 

bui pt »t- or -^ thirsty. «y«#£«»t. L to adore. 

Exercise 51. 

1* ^£_ u i( ,ut l' ifbou * Z^ni/tubna Wn tuhutjt u%btP bntnuhn 
J£l ,n 2? ^""fivp* Qfiuncu failAi Liub^hrg Jluhi%L.IAiunit Ll. on^htrg 
tiiMibnhpx \£bfi£t$u fipbfi yf* %Jtti%ftnt \?ftt? V nLt i^B b*uniLiut 
u*ju [P** / *tf'[in% Xiru uiuid* auijliX \\n AuihAsusn qfcu t f|'*i >/ r *^* 



') See also the footnote 2) lesson 13. 



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Demonstrative Pronouns. 63 

7&u/b*buip n£tra t Z,'VJP U &"/' j°PP ifattrpptT puiplrutuub £t 
fl"*./* u% QJlihftL tru <\*bnuihnjpt \$*nhp ^ht.pui'bnols o% ♦ ftphlbg 
iLtuulrpn Lp utrptnaut \\ J *i u 'J '"^"»^'7 *B nt l ' li^"*fy#"H au*ui 
nt-pftp utniut fjrlruijt f\ J f>% uyu tn huffish I* ppt \ptrp * putplr^. 
Ltuifnu^ftulrph hu . ^puiL-hpuitr blip atisbnbn np Jba ^irm 
p'hfrfpftu uuju fipjtbnuht |Aw?t_ hnh-fraftp ftpbug pntjbtrpp t 
•gtuuq/i fytutstquih- (niad) kflu* 'frrtt.np typ puinjulrh x ffil 4"* I?" 
£j/*: T*"«g» ^, tyn/ffc, Wl'l^tT* lit/''* «^fy? ^(£* < >* w2 ^^^? 
puihiui n.n un.pt f^tuplnJbfrpu Airn Ire Xtrp tihptrip qtiiL.tuu*. 
%lrpnt!bx \%'°tr* 4" ^Z" ^vunu^th uthnt*hp t J^Jbnp wuhttt-Vb t? n J£- 

£m*Jl—p i£« U X 

Translation 52. 

Who has the watering-pot? The gardener has 
it; he is watering the flowers with it. Dear mamma 
(<%rA'/)j give me some strawberries and almonds. Who 
is the young lady? She is my sister-in-law; her name 
is Amelia Vartooni. Do you know that tall man ? Yes, 
he is the bookseller; we have bought these dictionaries 
and grammars from him. How are you? I am very 
well, thank you. Is it cold? No, it is not cold. Are 
you cold, my child? No, I am not cold, dear papa. 
Are these boys hungry ? If they are hungry, give (to) 
them some bread. They are not hungry, but their 
father is thirsty. Give (to) him a glass of cold water. 
Please, give (to) us your axes (%*»&/'*'); we shall cut 
some wood with them. There they are, but their 
handles are broken. God, I love and adore Thee, Thou 
art my Father and Lord. 

Twenty-Ninth Lesson. 

Demonstrative (jr^j-i-*) Pronouns. 
These are: 

"'/" t *"" t tutthhui t unfit M this! "Ut* ivut f tumjiltiu , «./»»?/ M 

that; a; jii t i»» f »A'fifp»t J"*/** 1 ) that (referring to an object 
more distant than «*/7-» """ or "" n H' u )' 

1 ) This follows the 1st declension and is used only in the 
sivfjular. 



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6i Lesson 29. 

The first may serve as an example of the way 
in which they are declined. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom., Ace. "y-t **»«»# uMujti^iu *uui,*iy> these. 

this. 

Gen., Dat. -—v of or to this. -u-%g of or to these. 

Abl. w-fjk from this ,»»*%# Jk from these. 

Inst. #««#»£ with this. ««#«###Vy*/?#£ with these. 

Remarks. 

1. The English owe, when following a demonstrative 
pronoun, is not translated in Armenian, as: 

U«/* trf-^bt if, -ju x Muy&f^wi^, This one was 
happy, that owe unhappy. 

2. h x c l ) that an d f u trt those coalesce with the 
genitive of nouns, instead of the English possessive case f 
when the governing noun is not expressed. Ex. : 

Jacob's hat is new ; but his brother's (that of his 
brother) is old. 

'ikdbh *' 

My rose is beautiful ; but that of Isabel is more 
beautiful. 

ZfOpu &bbpp ^utt hit . tiLn Aft tIsutCiun.utLi*tftjXX^mm t 

Here are my father's horses; where are those of 
the merchant? 

Words, 

f^tjPut^u/uus^ pocket-book. Q-ipbi lamp. 



sty/ty knocker. 


ufnt-ufrftf doll. 


i^utut^ufT balcony. 


fy//ty sausage. 


tHtsithtu^ necklace. 


fttuutputJut'ikutn. grocer. 


uui.q_ dear. 


ut^tuLtutfjity or tst^utLtuft^ there 


tsttfut% cheap. 


is, — are. 


.«<I«tii.«^ here is, — are. 


ifrtT t^ftmbp I do not know. 




t^/ui T ^ L (with abl.) to like. 



*) When the Genitive ends in a vowel, the t is dropped, as 
{-{-t^t (not {-"{"jAPr), that of the tulip. 



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Possessive Pronouns'. 6B 

Exercise 53. 

Q^/v Jbju/bp ubt. 4", «flr % t^iupJftpx H l /« / Atrnltntjutrpnlflrp*, 
t/uify tru^ uiinnbp n.trn[tht [\<$utuu*ufilr hiT [tln(3 luiutifbuiLu . nup 
k &lrp pujptrfftuJfi'hpt Qlr*T t^[tuilrpx *flpnftt Ju/bhutt/p Urn 
i/opfiu£% utt-trjfi P niblfut if-frb £t \\unbf> ^p*f[*ut?fii ninutupttL^ 
%upu Atr, utunlig £f»u#tr/y£/&ta»Ay?£t \\ju fyuSLp-lrtflilrpni3i [n/un 
tut.tr tp tuiujtrtun. £ J>t**u uiUnbgjiupy p*ujg uArnbp utubifa unt-n 
ah DUth tuunhpt \fU ynltujfunuutntrJ* ^na.t.nth nlrnfrnLtiL-fl hubp 
J*utb JuipJfibftupl \jtt ututnujJt fy f ivfirnp(f-fn/ % t utunuiju% ^JrtT 
iu(unptf-frp t \\utpiutj_ nubffpt \\j"i niXfitT (some) * Jjpfynt. J>fp 
lufimfi a.1tniT u&tftr (Of it): U ju ff1*l_ k* hfl/'i ^ l U«*"t 4*« 
P « t piftuut uttf-uiu £t 

Translation 54. 

That knocker is bigger than this [one], The bal- 
cony of your father's house is larger than my uncle's. 
These are not their pencils, they are those of John. 
Here is his umbrella and that of Mary. Have you 
sold your [own] cows? No, Sir, I have not sold my 
cows, but those of my aunt. Who has any cheese ? 
The grocer has [some]. Will you buy [some]? Yes, 
I will buy five pounds of it («Aft). If you have some 
good wine, give me a bottle of it. 

Thirtieth Lesson, 

Possessive («i— •>-$•**) Pronouns. 

These are formed from the possessive adjectives fis 
or f»lp> t J*p or Jnrf%, etc., by appending -> r» e.» or* 1 ). 

Declension of the possessive pronouns. 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom., Ac. [»fc or fiJpi*, fitlpM'lp* mine. 
Gen., Dat. ^/»*// ,- » fnipi$hbpn±» of or to J 

Abl. [u![fok"t fi,fyM*L ( ik- from ! mine. 

Inst. f*Jpri»i[~, l»,rt,Vi t lrpni[~ with ) 



') For t and * see the lesson 2. 

Elementary Armenian Grammar. 



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66 Lesson 80. 

In like manner are declined •/?»*-}r or •e MM -tf l% r 
thine, *&pc or •&cf&t, ours, <* fyc or &bpf>%£ yours, ^/»c or 
l»pt%^ his, hers, its, and h^at. theirs, the oblique cases 
being always derived from the dissyllabic forms. 

The Relative 0~r~ftf~J~*) Pronoun. 

This is -p who, which, that, which is applied equally 
to persons and things. It is thus declined. 

Singular. Vlural. 

Nom. "/»i #y"'V who, which. 

Ac. q»pt >£??"$ i»p»Hg whom, which. 

Gen. «/»m-fc, »/i«^ of whom, of which. 

Dat. *»/!»«., ttpitiitj to „ to „ 

Abl. »fJt, . lptl % a Jk from whom, from which. 

Inst. «/»"£» apn'bgJ:,^ with or by whom, etc. 

Remarks. 

1. The Relative y"/»» y»j»« or v # 7"'fy? whom, which or 
Ma£ is sometimes understood iji English, but must 
always be expressed in Armenian, as: 

Here are the books you have ordered, ««^.« tM #«^ 

The letter you have written, W-/2*}/* ^p tv^ab^' 
The gentleman I walked with, •y««/»«fy# M/> »t. <;*«## 

y/v ufutu$l;h • 

Note. The same is very often expressed by the 
past participle of the active verhs. terminating in ->, 
construed with the genitive of the noun or pronoun 
designating the agent, and with another noun designat- 
ing the object of a past action referred to, as : 

\*f If Wit- II I. /Jm-} Ulllt-%» (utllt-%p % 111$ (I ItU *][UII*.lllljfi\ Jtfk- ^t I 

The house (which) I built, is not large. 

QVf —iirt»m^ utpffpb^ {§nfiltft%p % unp mAiiifttf) ^°/' '**/?'///*" ^» 

The lady (whom) you saw, is my aunt. 

2. Whoever (or whosoever is translated by -i -p» 
and whichever (or ivhatever) by fi^. -r» &s: 

Ht -r ^" 4e "^/»4i Whoever love me. 
I»\^_ «»|» uipr^utft kt »up<f»ui*l» k ftfbutnfi, Whatever is 
just deserves praise. 



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Possessive Pronouns. 67 

Observe also: 

~\ x m T , ȣ ~ t , he, she who or that. 
Ji % m t , jx^ - r , that which, what. 
~r mX + -r» they, those who or that. 

Examples. 

flv *•£ f «•»• *••») piuntrhiuiP tip up a.tn'ul^ a.iu%A up up n.ut%t? t 

He who finds a friend, finds a treasure. 

What is true to-day, must also be true to-morrow. 

fir" ^ **f (**»•••• f "f) ^tru ptoiifin tfytfutptnt$t.tt} jttftp tuptt-utiik 

They who do not speak the truth, deserve no 
confidence. 

Note. The present participle is frequently employed 
as a substitute for the above (R. 2.) forms. Ex. : 

gjiu "fo~xn (or «£ -•» if»» fc »fok) } Whoever love me. 

Wj" iutii[t»»mp jfi**^ rtttirtutiuptuiub mp (OX l&unintupiutulrtnp 

np in j, i tuw^nntp i^^^)j A'V *ffi £• The architect who 
built this palace, is an Armenian. 

Words. 

p ,„qu,i np-^tyJi kingdom. Juignip clean. —»»**-»* dirty* 

pp(i»„p»n- arm-chair. pp*uify, n dull. ?n*.p- blunt* 

^hhtn*H%f>L. bicycle. tf—pm—p skillful. 

Ifntfiuff.op shoemaker. -^iiP-u chainfess. 

ifm*. essay. ti pu$%ib L f, excellent. 

»^A//' razor. fu»%<»t. damp. 

uiuififtfc barber. ^^qapt m,ut p ut i'V* a# y*'A*- kind. 

PThp good. *^rfik t° ex tol. 

jjupn_ip,Lpin.% humanity. l?r lm i m to wither. 

<tn,t U ,ui.k% ribbon. «»%/&Hl to curse. 

<^iutifpMnti p i»l% pride. u pf"iT^L t° correct. 

n.hu devil. '"^h^L t° shave. 

^ nt _n- gate. *"*?l to grow. 

n uqu* camel. h%pm^p%^ to kneel. 

Exercise 55. 

\\tf* pujfLpiiuLu Juipnt-n £, onuLptn. tu qui nut £t «£a£-y.T. 
£ P iun_aiunnnvpiiubpx f\ry/yi utna_hpp up %lrpunnau hi'""*! 



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68 Lesson BO. 

tM.fti.giuitLutrpp. Jb%g tut t^p utrppnqtrho Jbpfltilttrppt %£"*- 
fthttLtuplniLulrpn ^fiL.putbaijb ifb « nt-p tru ftpLVlilrnni O&iP 
tf.fnntrnx \nT utjutLirpmbbpu tfinuttjfc otr, fcpbugjiltltbpp pflut^ 

tlfiut t i|£ 1 l*p kg (I beg your pardon), upup/tb , f,pbua(,uubp1t 

ujj Jibp/iuubpntX £f i "/ r dutuigft Irbx [} % bp ^ft-tuut^uthn^fiu ptf fetf* 
ubpp Xbp tilth bpl^it tuck [fa Atupututp but \$">p <^bb btiuhpcp 
u/hpqflujj f? bt- om-ffltibf- tut.tr jfi uncq^t 

^^ututuufib foitut^utpp np Lutpbg ibp ^oififyubppi Qnp<~ 
tjtuL. ftqbufilt litip uShfibbtj Qfiuiiiut \\tuptj.uitjiub bJ % p"P*p 
ttpB^pp qnpu a_pu*b- £ Z+iyp W[f*2*"b* ^(""dt 1 " n i"^tr &f* J[f_ 
tj^babp uthubiut uitupb ubnutt-t Wfittrptup npni.lt Atunn up 
upiiutq-pkj± ^(7/ £* *&>**/' Oiufuiub" iutuputfc-uji utbuutb trtPx 
^Ltup^fih fiiul jupfyutb- ufutw^bpubpp put at if-b/jhyftfy but \}nju 
uputhsb tft ututuittbpp uttutpnn fyputbuuiuji u.btttupnL.buui$uL.npp 

Qutfapau fhf>uo (James Tissot) t* U>^//tt» «/»«£ "-"frpfria 

tubbtba nfiu pat-P" kp l 

Translation 56. 

Your coat is old, mine is new. Are these thy 
shoes? No, they are not mine. His house is small, 
yours is very large. Is this your umbrella? Yes, but 
it is not so fine as theirs. Why has your sister bought 
a new penknife? She has broken hers. 

Here are the red ribbons which Miss Arpinaz 
has bought. Where is the letter you received from 
your aunt? Here it is. The room in which I sleep 
(fe •£*""*""«0, is very damp. Is this the exercise which 
your teacher corrected? Yes, Sir. I have found the 
keys with which the thief has opened (pu»ipu&) the 
doors of the rooms. Where is the pen with which I 
had written (y./#«*^ k/») my first letter? It is on the chest 
of drawers. (The) history praises them who have 
done (p»*uo- b%) good to humanity. He who is kind and 
polite, will have (*y^««^ niubu,»j) many friends. What is 
fine, is not always good. (The) pride is a flower that 
grows in the devil's garden. (The) man is the only 
(Jfrtotj) animal that laughs and weeps ({««./•*/). (The) death 
is the black camel which kneels at every man's gate. 



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69 

Thirty- First Lesson. 

Indefinite (~*t-l) Pronouns. 

These are used witJwttt substantives, whereas the 
Indefinite Adjectives (see lesson 21) are alwaj r s employed 
with a noun substantive. 

They are: 

ui,lh%p/i all. nJu/rq» 9 Jt^ m p'»'^f' some. 

f,L[t„q,u,%if, L [t np everybody, ^tuutbp^ many or — a man. 

utJir% Jklff each one. Jk^ict —-rl'zj t V"- u other. 

n u:p nobody. *«- »i_»lkt/p none. "*/»/£_ «^fc » «ul V somebody 

p,»% ,/j, f fi,± something, any- else. 

thing. nL rfi. F itA 4* f "ul_ fit. some- 

n th % L notliing. t»i_ Jktfn none. thing else. 

«^"V7- or J^upi^Uf Jkt/n one. ^y^c* tlfrL&nfl'p the same. 

u*Jb% piui, t u$Jk% fi%t_ every- f'ck nt ^ u $U L both. 

thing. Jtfk Qi—rtfyL-jt , nin.k 'lp> either. 
S,^ ,%,%, A^ ,IJ,% At_ .tyi-up neither. 

Remarks. 

1. One another or each other is expressed in Armenian 
by fr~r or 4rii/M» which is declined as follows: 

Nom. wanting. 

Ace. ^/"*/» or %fw*»c) JkbqJkl[ one another, each other. 

Gen., D. /&/»«»/»»*- ; Jk^Jk^ of or to) 

Abl. fir'T^ ! «ftf «*ffr from > one another, etc. 

Inst. //»«*/./..£; ,fklffkt(~t with | 

2. The interrogative {^m PS ^m%) pronouns are, for 
persons "£ (pron. ©£) w/w? for things ^l te?AaJ? The 
former, which is both singular and plural, is not 
declined, but takes for its oblique cases those of «r 
(see less. 30). J* 1 !, follows the 3 d declension (see less. 8). 
Ifrt which ? is declined like the relative pronoun -f (see 
less. 30). 

3. They or people is expressed either by the 3 d pers. 
plur. Indie, of the active verh or by the 3 d pers. sing, 
of the passive voice (see less. 32), as: 

i t s r „b'i, pt; or Vr»—-b phi the}' say or people 
saj- that. 



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70 Lesson 81. 

4. The indefinite pronoun some, when referring 
to a preceding substantive, may be translated in 
different ways. "When it replaces a sing, noun, we may 
say : 4>frt_ Jp # <>«•«» Jp_ * »k»» »% • k"' n P <% ; in the plural : 
^^%p Jj» -;.««. Frequently, however, it is not ex- 
pressed at all. 

Examples. 
"Will you have some beer? Yes, give me some. 

Have you any more of these cigars? 

Yes, I have some still (or a few more). 

Ul«/' ; # +~it «t C— r -t. "«-V <r ( or simply »*AfiT). 

5. The English pronoun one (plur. owes), after an 
adjective is translated in Armenian by 4— »•, as: 

I have three dresses, a silk one and two woollen ones. 

\?pirf» aa.lruut ni\tjiif* f £*««f» «^ Jkutwuitb i^% tr: hrptjiii. <£«««» 
PPt^l^fr . 

However, it is not expressed at all when taken 
in a partitive sense, as: 

The tiger and its young ones, ^tpp **• h *-t*pp • 
The little ones, <ytfity*'*r£* 

Words. 

*yu*f„% gentleman. *u$$nt.j, cloth. 

f/*» price. Jpgufbuilt prize. h^p—p parcel. 

uhu,nut( box. /A^lrp ,u p ,up,uhr fellow-crea- 
{^/^tw^ portrait. ture. 

fitu0quiqni.p-/$i3t peace. u^utu»nuutpj-$u% honourable. 

tj.£ruufu/i,u*fuii(t<Z nL i"t con- «Y««/»tL #o dance. 

ference. «y«#«»««<Jf L to happen. 

jp*Jj» will. muspuut^^ to blame. 

Exercise 57. 

ft J tulip Ln futu/ituu t nt-nfrJbirnn Ln tuutnhu bri~ L* hrnu.au i 
\\Jbu no Ifnt-uj; trp^u/bfttf pi£S"U Wtfyn ^tupnLuut fy#, J/il.u^ 
uinuutui, puflR B~ntrai~pu tut ustulrpOiuu[iL l^fiux <IJ . ^tu^fitutT 
tuuatnnt-utpj-uiv ufhX Jnh £• uiJHbnn l^n ^j usfiy.au afihg^i ||£ 
iCtuU^Uiup "*)** iftunn.fiLnx f|'>_f t in L n PP t^iT AusuAttun , tuunuut§% 



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Indefinite Pronouns. 71 

u%L outhftb Jfiutjh (only) tip autUshuttTx frftblrplttrp^rtt nJiuba 
^fiLtMtbn. oht ■jfji/uiphui utrinh Lutuhhn up uhphit \Qpi tu, p\ "*- 
b f ou 4 htt f h ftpu$pnux ||« 7iuAtAiut$/ % u%fyp np otrntl^ ututrifi nt-tiirutt 
£» fl'V k uyu ujutpnbpt finpfrfat-rf.iM*igfi tfpb £ i fl*<£ bu~ **{Jf 
opjwpnlhhppt tF£^/» tflrp ilutpj-tuputhfi tnitop^rbf^t n.nLUuipu £» 
its- tfftt-ublrnn Wt/bpfi£rftt.^[il/lrp uu , qnpu *lrtT IXuthAtutpt f\pukr 
q*bbglip uttu ujutuiblrppi \% lr* ^p tf-fikp* f\p"%B "^' \f t -p nu ( u ot 
uiJVhuiJhb outnutpbhrppt \&£n°J ? Ltu }j[!E (0p6118(J) "U'f- "(A*^ 
uinulrpt Wju puthuttfSbhpi-h u%Lnihii f\pn\.1u LlAtn.uthuiti.ppb £ 
utfht tf*utpfr£utaulrp£u u%t^ntXh 4"» Qtu^trlfuth Q-frfipbp niXftp t 
Wijri , pnt-utrp^Vbtrp hi. uiuuthtrp^hutrp nt3t[iJ % t Qju i[iirp^ti 
npnhp utfiutfr h tuful^px \\tiulrppt ^ji* utputulrpinuarpiAt pt.put^ 
tjtuliifiLpp Jpgutbuttt tip put^&rguti-i \\putrh Of l[ punt.p fl I? 
[tiuinutnnt-fiHrutU n.lruuiui%ut[itnp^nt-pn.p utfiutli n.nt.Jutpnt.p 

(will convene) ir«2/A" 17^» U'"^£/A ^L* 

Translation 58. 

Love all, trust (to) a few. Somebody knocks [at] 
the door, who is [it]? Has the shoemaker sent your 
shoes ? Yes, but there is only one pair, where are the 
others? Christians ought («y«y»««^fc) to help (to) one 
another. Beneath (fc *££*«. or »>»»?() the sun (Gen.) nothing 
happens without the will of God. Who has broken 
the looking-glass? The servant broke it this morning. 
Whom do you blame? I blame one of (from) my 
servants. Of (from) whom have you bought this 
black cloth? To whom do you send this parcel? I 
send it to the bookseller. Will you have anything? 
No, thank j t ou, I will have nothing. Which is the 
highest mountain of Asia ? It is Mount Everest. Who 
knows this merchant? Nobody knows him. Everybody 
has his [own] faults. With money (w u ' r ) one («%»t. ) can 
do (fc^'V e?'^L) much good to one's (A/») fellow-creatures. 
In this world (nt^u-pS) the one is rich, the other poor, 
and nobody is contented with (from) his [own] fate 
( F u,,ft). We have leather (t^ifk) gloves and silk ones. 
Has the count many horses? Yes, he has several, but 
he lost ( t(np„%g n t.g) a fine one yesterday. 



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72 



Thirty-Second Lesson. 



Passive Verbs. 

The Passive (fowfiuiQuSi.) voice ) for the verbs of 
the 1 st and 2 d conjugations, is formed by changing 
the terminations of the Infinitive Mood t^ and li into 
"-ft. (pron. 4$l) as: 

u h^L t° love; «A»— Jl t° be loved. 
^«|[, to speak; ^©*^.».-J L t° be spoken. 

That of the verbs of the 3 d conjugation is obtained 
from the Pres. Participle (see less. 2G, II.) by chan- 
ging its termination -«l into ""lij as: }«#/»^-. L to read; 
Pres. Part, f m^o^*^ ; %—n ug m * m tL to be read. j»"- uut a m ^\i. 
to be hoped. 

Note. "When the termination —^ is preceded by 
two consonants (having no euphonic t , see less. 9, b.), 
a euphonic c is inserted in the pronunciation, as: 

^rt—tL (pron. 'km*±fii_) to be sung; ft*-}— f^ (pron. 
ftiyc/'ifa) to be forgotten. 

All the passive verbs ending in --£l follow the 
second conjugation (see less. 25). 

The preposition by, with the passive voice, is 
rendered in Armenian by the ablative case, as: 

WpJkl fe f-„i£,«-^ fo tiutp^iu^ut^i , Armen is praised 
by his master. 

frifl'C ^Wfyi»*. pn.iHt%yi t The nest was built by 
the bird. 



Words. 



u^mpm^uAi^lsu ball. 

%0$$.unf.ui^$s0%0j.ti* concert. 
+~~\u,$us*» ipickpurse. 

%u*ftsfy$sstnauit pOSt-Office. 

o^hnupfct-'u help. 
^fm^iupinuil^ firman. 
uMQgnAfig court. 
J-utftt^nphr watchmaker. 



fuuj^ijls L to bite. 
Jk&u*pk L to esteem. 
t „% tU[ .^b L to despise. 
Ihrppu,^^^ to arrest. 
fcphruAk^ to destroy. 
^u»uiutu^iupuilff_ to condemn. 
\,u]uy L to hang. 
^«tfHi. r j^ to publish. 



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Passive Verbs. 73 

fyumquibr mad. »lkpp wound. tff t p,ut.npb^ to wound. 
Z?V!P"fP~ flatterer. %utfuutmb£_ to offend. 

**rh •p—L valiant, brave, r?"t$ •«{#«#«. u»fe on the con- 
fu, /n &ftiu^iMj% imperial. trary. 

pbpbuu perhaps. 



Exercise 50. 

\}U bp ufpnuftP hunnpubpl;ux Wju utniuu Luimiwuth- pn^h 

Jp [uu»b%nubtjuiL. t Qjupniun uufu/Uhni.&ifit. (? (must be killed) r 

"^nnrtpnpfa^bbpp ♦Air ju$pn.nt.[ip* phn.^tubtun.iubp % b'ufbiup* 

fnt.pt utJbu »Ttupn.k (by everybody) t «t|. vMi_ (Riggs) fa 

uhhutpntp tut/ku tftupn.£ x ^utptu^tuun t^up ^puiefipm.utb' rp t 
fl'^j ti(utprtu % l tut jg flbpbt-U %nt-tua.tu^uAti^up tufiuifi ^put* 
t-fpnuftT ujjv fipfifynt.ux }\p[i qfiunt-npubpp tufttnfr tftup&uiui^ 
pnuftu ftftua.ust.npfcux f\ubft tftutltugnigu be tubnp pnfJtuh Q- nn *- 
gnubgu/b (were Stolen) ^uusiut^tuuik Jp % np ^fe fepgc 
3ibpputlftutnt.bgiut.x f\pifl; a. pnt.bg tut- ujju u ftp nub nutututuunppi 
fanifdtuu \Pncp^u upnutuh- pn*»ini- t?x Qju utui/iububpp hut*. 
Jtufyusutnt.% fitplfni-bint- but \vbnlf (pOOr) wnffifyp tuftwfi utaut*. 
tnnt-Lpi a fit? on.unt.fiJ but u ^utt/utp utntunuilfuib pH***p (if SlM? 
had Cried) « }\j uop tufttnft tgu*pn_utgnt-fi Ifiujubptut^utb ^pntfutp^ 
ututbpx 

Translation CO. 

This English (utufifimfmu) history was written 
by a famous author. The French language is spoken 
at all the courts of Europe. Carthage (ifnpffbf&nu) was 
destined by the Romans. The robber was condemned 
to be hanged. Some new grammars will be published 
by Mr. Groos. In the last battle 60 soldiers have been 
killed, and 200 wounded. The wounds of the soldiers 
were washed by the physicians. If you are virtuous, 
you will be loved and esteemed by everybody. Who 
will repair («n r nn-b L ) the old clock? It will be repaired 
by the watchmaker. Milton's Paradise Lost was 
translated into Armenian by Father Arsen Pacra- 
dooni. 



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74 

Thirty-Third Lesson. 

Impersonal (-^r^ or 4~t4 / ) Verbs. 

These are regularly conjugated so far as the third 
person singular is concerned. 

Such are: 
tfu/ulpk^k it rains. /=«•«- £, 4c /■*"-£ it suffices. 

\ e lfi*.%k it snows. p»*h he. P--b it seems. 

{Myrf**.** fc ^A^,^ it hails, fe ^i-r«.«#^ it happens. 
te 4"UL""—"tt it lightens. fVf MiKrtr » fa--.fi they say, it 
tfapuutuy it thunders. is said. 

{/t umm.fi it freezes. *ifU^L or — *"■*. ^ it i s con ~ 

uu*n.£ (ice) fo ^/A it thaws. venient. 
fr jp%k it gets dark, etc. li-r^it * it i s possible. 

<«»/»# * it is necessary. 
iy£«~^ h one must ; one wants 
or needs. 

\\»y there is is used only in the Present and Im- 
perfect tenses of the Indicative Mood. Unlike other 
impersonal verbs, it has a plural form, as follows. 
Present Sing. f«v tliere is ; Plur. $«a there are. 
Imperf. „ 4«v there vssls; „ \-ufik there were. 

Words. 
tfu*$rp»p^,,i-p fiu% journey. *uu$mfiJ- fa&£_ to suffer. 

tubwtl castle. j-tvikL. to succeed. 

jus% g ,ui.„p guilty. 4u*M.us£i0f,ir L to govern. 

ypk »i_ else. t-trfiL to cease. 

juijCistfi, often. *%»*[_ to remain. 

Exercise 61. 

l|£ ifiiXk* fl£_i £$ kfitXtrp* IftultXplrt-kt Wju tfilJ^P 
nnnuiuiiji tukgfijMX Q,kl* npnututp 9 Ln tfiutjituututL^p i \fpuuu f*k 

hrppbifL mlrrjhp (in some places) fyu»pfyni.u9 mknusijlrp £* ti£ 

bwpbhiP fih uifiuifi utun.fi t \ofiuui anuput £. fid nt.fi fia-l; tufitnfi 
uutn.fi t a ^t u l£ >k ¥/'^/_ wunpi Mp pnt.fi fa-k J>l*afi n.ptuu 
ufkutp £■/') hrfik n £_ tufiutfi ^but/utfip uwubn.i Qiulfiu/u fe 
ujututut^fi np uiuJbnhtrpn upuuifid- l^p £pou % juiugu$i.npuirpnL.u 



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Irregular Verbs. 75 

m 'L. (*0r) * ^IL U'"i"l[^P ^ly^/'i^ tfranub uni/p&snL. Jkf 

(in learning)* \Xj"t kp_ j^f^ib^y ^"US ^^^"^^^ ^«- 
^iut/fiirftnLpfiult iyk*np t (needs) /»</«» ufututguiff, (properly) 

u n tip bint, nujjhx 1|<ty }\uutnutub tfn % nn ftiftuumni-PlrutJu. (wisely) 
up uuiiitut/iunt? tuJbunx 

Translation 02. 

It froze this morning, and now it thaws. It ceases 
to thunder and it begins ({/» »i»fi) to rain. It is too 
cold to-day; it is better to remain at home (m^tyt). 
There were 8 pupils in that class. Is there any ink 
in my inkstand? No, there is no ink in it. It is said 
that the American soldiers have won the battle. There 
are many streets in Marsovan which are very narrow 
(ybl) and dirty. One (iHup^nLu) needs (»Yt«*^ £) much 
money to make (jAb^J) this journey. I do not think 
that there can be (#/'*'"# pju»l) & more beautiful old 
castle in the world than that of Heidelberg. 

Thirty-Fourth Lesson. 

Irregular (-.!{-.*•*) Verbs. 

Those verbs are commonly called irregular which 
deviate from the three regular conjugations. These are 
not numerous, and their anomalies are chiefly con- 
fined to the Perfect Indicative (see page 21, foot- 
note 1), the Imperative and the Present and Past 
Participles. 

This deviation is of two kinds. 

1. Verbs which preserve their radical syllable 
throughout unchanged, but drop the letter * or t. of 
the Infinitive and take flexions that do not accord 
with the ending of their Infinitive. For instance the 
verb «y«»j.Hl to kiss, ending in H^ ought to take the 
flexions of the first conjugation ("Ar*/J- But this is 
not the case. Such verbs constitute the first class. 

2. A certain number of verbs change their root 
and are conjugated with other flexions than those 
corresponding with the ending of their Infinitive. For 



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76 Lesson 1>4. 

instance the verb ^Hj, to put, ought, according to its 
Infinitive termination V^t to take the flexions of "fo^. 
But this is not the case, as: Pies, fe» ^i^r I put; 
Perf. tpfri rrfo* te""-) Imper. qfp t etc. Verbs of this 
kind we assign to the second class. 

A list of all the Irregular Verbs 
according 

to the two Classes of irregularity. 

First Class. ... Ti 

1'res. P. 

Infinitive. Perfect Indicative. Imp. Past P. 

nilQ. fWlllljA| fWHW) aM»M«ff) 4-<"£t>t «^ f*V.^! » *|»*»««A"» 

In the same manner : J**l>i m to enter, */ l I-l to rise, H}Vl 
to descend, $**Hl to ride, «»£«H L to see (Imper. ««£«). 

li*-M*L tO H»At -"t-fipt $un.u»u % U«-» +' uiuXkp^ U *-*»«£_» 

take. iM«./»t{|»f u*n.fig t utn.fi1i t tuu-(~j»i ^l' —m%kzfti Wit-tub. 

Thus also: ^^|. L to bite, ^"V-I-l to kiss, ftpHi. to spit. 
(Imper. /*««-.£» Jf p^Xbp). 

IT^^Hl tO |fA«t.«^ , «lfr«.M#/i t Wfr«.a#t- , \pha-fc, Jf Jkn-- JpknXm^ 
die, tikn.u*%£ , ittrn.>ug , Jkia.uA* , l#/r^i , jpfr «.<*«& . 

iikm.fy> | «(f» JbaXf\g t 

Thus : ^«*«tJ L to arrive, to reach, ^u#^#^J L to flee, 
^•YtfL touch, P"-\tt to fly, VWl to be pulled down, 
V^Ml to cleave to, J*vtfL to adhere, *«^Vl to pass, 
jt»«.«if L to sprout, to grow, ^*«^Vl to put on, ^>'~Vl 
to bear (a childj, «4'^L to begin (Imper. «^)» *W*Jl 
to get rid of, to slink, VW*Jl to snap, to break, *""*»Jl 
to sit down. 

forget, -/i*.^«/i_, twp, |p MM .^ui^. 

Thus: /»« r (ru#x-. L to be angry, tfM#^t- t to know 
(to be acquainted with), tf m ^ m L to know (to recog- 
nize), f*t~ L to stay, <>«*«{!-. L to understand, «««£>-. L to 
be ashamed, fa-mmUm^ to promise, fc»i*x to be able, 
umu,\~ L to get, to receive. 



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Irregular Verbs. 77 

Note. By adding *-(., ~*-x or V*"-l to almost any- 
adjective and also to a certain number of nouns a 
verb may be formed, signifying to acquire the quality 
expressed by the adjective or noun. Ex. : -»up warm, 
. n „ipi~ L to be warm ; p»»i^p high, ptup&pJi~^ to be ele- 
vated; ?-"^ thief, ^ w t}- l ^ steal; faf* fear, ^"^-l 
to fear, to be afraid ; »/&/»<* or «/£«» near, t/&/r<tp.~ L or 
,/oi«u* L to come or to go near. All the verbs of this 
kind are conjugated after /-^i- L . 



Exercise 03. 

|» tr£_ q.tniupz \ f u f-f*jff> *fp tf.utu*jt dlujpu uta Jfyfitutn ilp 
ifuiiut.t QftunLU putuL. (said) ^frt-uturf.fiu. tf tyA/»» uin. liut^ftlfn. 
(bed) Ac J>wiJ? (walk) „ * ^nnbpp Jbp uinubp tltnuah ire f-"7«- 
tjuih J>(in£u tfn^iitftfrqjtVbbjtn (jewelry) Ac ifiut/itush » ^"US 
nuuifttfuA/Utrpp (pollCe-mail j <$wuutb A*, bin (back) uinft% qui*. 
Iinbpt \jp[ttn$uuuipn_p ^*f*/p/t (wildj ^/» t/ff ^irtrtuut \\nLputtn 
puutb k* „ tfH&t/ff'P 1J>t"l_ U * lj/'/« Wqkfi" 1 ^^' tffimtjuta- fit 
ututuVbiufr t?p ftp puiphLtutfp* \\n(ip9-nup X piuut ifeuitunuH. (grieV- 
0d)» U}""5? i°2f'i u ^Jiut'ftit-t \\jn % u/fuiuj Ac jfthhtjfr uii % 

utn^p Ac ^ivtfdp i^o bt \\ ruffr (how long) tyhijutg (in) fw^ 

tnutpft btrgtultt £ttt.l*p JowtrnuiL. ftltXft Ac fit tub utu a/tut \pft 

ifiin%u/p qfiui ^M/M^tc/ tr [&£_ np (what) pufi (I said)* Ui/"» 

^utuhatub 1 P'yS tt "Q/f u, ^ i tuiuuiiuufittitttbtni.t *\*bq&tu%hLp nup 
Pntuut Q&tT rj-ftuifrpy p ***/£} &/»& A/i tr^tr A^m (swallow) ^«-««Jr 
(ifljHitjph * * ♦ away) utuip Irpfyfip'ulrpt ^uibsjjujp tuju tuuspnbpi 
QZfii/ltifj <vj nutlipuiu s Qtiu% u in in a tun u> f" *buitf?nLp t «IJ ♦ Qni.tftnu 
||/r »*/£?/ uintiigmj ttitipti {^niin^t/t ">'"/»/"/» uttuup uiuiph Lmu ^p 
bpp Jhit-tuut \ptujpu puinlpufi ntift (ami-chair) «^f» Jpuy'huwuu. t 
^uutfip fbumllg (git dOWll) * lf/» ' Pgbbp uiuifinnuMfuitfiubfiu (floor) : 
t/puy. Pgtutfiulspu (spitOOll) «^t^ Pnt^pt £,puA»n/£_ tutua_tuL. 
ftp ufnutupfiLfib tujuibpp t \J*frp ifinnngftlb t/kf Ji'^f 1 *0*_ ^fo 

in nub hp iftjtub &p/fptupis*pc/ 4-tr (earthquake)* }^hgtu% opLpu 

IrpOtuuLnt.p truth : 



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78 









3 



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Is % 



3 



CC X- ^/ 






*1 t k i> 



5 

is 



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9 c 



r <« «* 

Ok cJ 



o3 



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a 

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Irregular Verbs. Second Class. 79 

1 1 t i t i s p 1 

« «t #■ rf- Z b 4 



. .. * F 

ob £ £ rf- 'i? b 4 



t- ? 



5* 






* $ TV* I * 1Kb 1 14 I 

«, Sill- i rf- lS.*L fe»t 4 tt 






1 






IS 






5 


9j 

> 


c* 


^ 

^ 


c 

+3 • 


c 




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3 


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<30 


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£ £ i? b 4 



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80 Lesson 85. 



Remark. 



The Passive of ^*b L is w«"-Al» of »—»£_* «/i«t//_, 
of vuAfi L % «»/i«*.^. ^'^/_ has no proper passive, but 
cwl is employed instead in the sense of to be done. 

Exercise 64. 

\fU bppnp ftpftLni.% bnua. , ftp tu^utl^bputbbpp (disciple) 
hpL% bbuib ne nuh*h y \\u tuLuiutttiui uibn tfph £, be J~iutlui~. 

Itusfe fn.^ (late) utgiub b* tupXtu^ (send away) <//»'£»^r»i/»y- 

Ibpp (multitude) i np fT^'lA/'/^ bpfliulb nt. fipbty l^bptul^nep 
(Victuals) if-Mitt fo*. ftftuneu puu$e % ^wpfy itr np luwnlsg 
bpuf-u/h , n.nua uine^o usvnnug np nt-utbht \^hnhp tut puph tuunp , 
<£nu Jftuijh ^fiif. %tfu»%tufy (loaf) be bpl^ne int-fy ni%[tbgi f|c 
uibfilftu putuL.) ^nu frbbft pbpkj» qiuUnbut \^e ^punTuijUg np 
tinnnt£nepnXbpti1iutnpbfitntnfib tfctuj. be tuiLute ^fibi^ 'b^iuhutl^h 
ne bpfyne *W^#, At. '/-£*?. /f ^i'ty/tyd 1iuylriii»l_ (looking Up 

to . . .) op^itrij) be 4tnptt£n£ (breaking), 'it^uM%u»^bbpp^ u»^u$^ 

LbputbbpnuU umeuti. % be uspuiLbpinbbpp (fnnnJnepit-^i'ht \^e 

u.Jk1s£p (all) firpuib nt. fewusjusl, (were filled)* Matt. XIV. 

15 20* b c 4> a *l'l' n P (as) ui'Unhg fy'nt-inkfili, Qf$unt-U <^usg 

lunuiL opybbu ne uutpbg t be wnetue tip utputbbp»M»bbpnuU ne 

L »mu t n* Hg % tlplijn u,u k H % «%•«#*«« Matt. XXVI. 26: 

\^e Qfiuneu iLiup&tut. litis ifbg tie pu»ue % flV/ \}pueuui>tbJfi 

ij.m-uuip%tfp % fij* tfptuu (for me) Jfi /_"^?» £u/«y«# (but) i^sk^t 

ibp u/bltipaeb ne Xbp t^u/eut^hbpnt.% ifouyt |ifcwit_ np (for) 
us^iu (behold) opbp l^ne ifuSb* npnhg u%f_ ttjftutfr pui% % \fpa/b[i 

(blessed are) ujJhi^ (barren) %bpau% % be tu/b npmfcu/ls- 

(WOlllb) %bpni?b np ^b%iMth % be b[ibbpne% (pap) np t("»fl- 
^uinefib (tO give SUCk)« \\j% uiinh'b^ (then) ^Jtmft ufyufi* 
p**i*[_ [bn*bbpni*b y Xfbp tjpuij fib££o , nc p£nt.p1bbpneh , biub- 

fofy ^. L . Luke XXIII. 28—30. 

fjhn+neup Juihii-iulitfh tbutpiute % utn.u$e be U-unvbgxue 
(perch) full &npit% unfit Hk/tunfi'b i/ptvj t ^"US ^^"UP" n i' t l^ t P° t 
(expert) 'b^uuhuin.ni- (shot) t#y»l» by utupfyute out/hi f+weftfi} 



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Adverbs. 



81 



qwrfutt. ^ulftM/k (giant) t z^kf- (poor) Jtypn [f^s""- bv "br^lb 

nptfunfb ifpuy (for)« „ fantfttLgfilbg q™jb bt' '£-»*£$» ^trih 
tunutbiftb" i Wju itjbtufe (plate) u/rifut%fih ifptuj if*?* 

Thirty- Sixth Lesson. 



Adverbs (^fa-^*/-). 
i. Primitive (p--*) Adverbs. 
a) Adverbs of place (ft«L~J" x •Hp-^tr)' 



»l_Jkl( mhiu»in*-pkg nowhere. 
nptfcfoh tnbq^ Jp somewhere. 

iffiitfbu ttLp f ttp£ut£ titbit flOW 

far? 
the • close by. 
#—[c< aside by. 
,«%^>, , ,%fiiM, i _i»i! J et yonder. 
,/«*«.•»£ on, along. 
t^"l b j * u "-'»!_ onward. 
Jotn t — /». near. 
luut^ytt tuhif.^% to and fro. 
<;«« $*% here and there. 



nV where? wither? 
nt-utyfyt nt-ftf(k whence? 
<J"« here, hither. 
<J»fc there, thither. 
,un hbd9 i—'^k hence. 
'"t'hbd* '»i'tk thence. 

iuJh*ti utbn t $ujb*l$ n*.pbja OVe- 

rywhere. 

nt -pbz_ ,n &i_t "UL. nL i'kp else- 
where. 

y- back. *•» tr m backward. 

£«/yi below, beneath. 

far down, tk'i b far down- Jkfp. » %bp«p within, inside, 
ward. 7-«t/»«» if.tn.pvft without, out- 

t[trf up, tk"i b t£r upward. side. 

i^,u„/,% t Jkif utb^ together. {bpp above, up stairs. 

utitt.% home, mttt&p at home, fare below, down stairs. 

<££«_„*_, -fc far. fay* fav&' over. 

Lu*b*.£ behind. t»frt^ from %bp^bt.p t mmfe underneath, 
behind. tb^diL opposite, face to 

tU n.fht.p % „» n .$hrt-k*'t before. face. 

IttLpf^tf p"f^»pft around. 

ft) Adverbs of time (/.-/-A-H- 1 /-jp-yUf). 
tfpp when? }«A/»«./# early. 

n a pit u, b '—-kit how long? »"-2_ late. 
^JttTm , now, at present. **£ tf—P $•**««.£» soon or late. 

b r kQ yesterday. buip&r afterwards. 

Elementary Armenian Grammar. 6 



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82 



Lesson BG. 



kpktt ik ""*•# o Pa the day 
before yesterday. 

—juop to-day. 

{wye to-morrow. 

»lusq_ u»m.—Loui to-morrow 
morning. 

usdk% op daily. 

t Ji, a bu* L op the other day. 

j*»f*Tl- opp next day. 

$bu,hL.tru, L op£ the follow- 
ing day. 

•/• «£ one day. 

•[Lpgt—lk" at last, at length. 

usp^fr already. 

Jfi%l*i. till. 

ju0&»/u often, frequently. 

4, fa us% i .us,r seldom. 

q.t,u yet ; ^*«- ^. . . not yet. 

«#£«» always. 

fUMpib$ui again. 



%»fu m»yfi meanwhile. 
i^vifr" lately. 
oppy^Jk^ every other day. 
fafafl* instantly. 
«A<jj&£«/<y£« immediately, at 

once. 
JLpp t kppLSh sometimes. 
^irutitfhu.k by and by. 
„.jun L $b—ku hereafter, 

henceforth. 
jtiA^uphr suddenly. 
««**.«#£ before. 
t""4W after. 

pisusu, t»j_ Lpphji never. 
l/^u opf>% at noon. 
'V thz^p to-night. 

^bpun t Uiitnhusi antupp 

year. 
2u»u, n %g long ago, long since 
,^i Ut .f,% still. 



last 



anuautULK 



upu$stujui$ gamekeeper. 
uptftupu/h coffee-house. 
tf—ifpuy i>i£l_ to set out. 
b»W»% station. 
■ua%Bx.u»$P time. 
u,u,h%o t g formerly. 
$j$%$nn.irL to seek, to look for. 



Words. 

~L b"v/c. Tight. 

auuiuija^ 01* auuiiyua tip £^£/ to 

take a walk. 
uujuau&L to expect. 
tu,,% IU p^b L to conjugate. 
^foJwJp on purpose. 
'tfi u i $ "- u, ^" i L by accident. 



Exercise 65. 

ftnuuiujut^M trpp ujftutft tfuyi iljutjjtt Q,lrp ^"Jl'P r *«-/' fa 1 
plitajbfit Z^nu i/ouifl bp p% tub fax ll«"/£ ^banu bp ataapf^ox fl'>« 
£&i/ % bp%tup. puyS '/""lU. tj* **C K u °t'l* ^ 'phftplrJ* Jibp ^bua: 
\f pp intiLb bbiupx \ju utptiLt^b utnt-b'b 4"/» • ^ U JJI' U (fk** tl'lPl't^ 
uint-b bbmux \\n*funt- < }[i t U Jbtttux, \butbcbuti °/'/** \f u *u%gbu*a 
op inbuuy qutbftLutx ^JiJua J?/»> ufbu-iuiT bp upbiT % uiiliuO 
sualXutpi bp Q-pkl'* ll ""111 fta.iui.otn taint-up utp$nb /'//"Sp* fl>l 
bptfy {]• ujnfp °('l' wnulilt f?fi % ba. JJi'lssbu ju*n-u*£(il(uy (next) 



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Adverbs. 83 

nt-piiutfij- uwi%p $uftutjt >/»/£J*'*^ %, Qtuatufii Lp [unuutp^^ro uAi*. 
tfUibnb puitupnt \^iliuO UJU&tft ^jutauifu Ifp [t$nhtun^t?fi nu/unbpi 
^puttftutfti Lnutptrahp **f/u ustuutnt-^utup t fl'> s ft.Liurtt.ut a- nd 
(it DV • . •)• **7 U utn.uti.ou9 anp-typu &L. tru Lp fuutntujpttp 
uputuph ) be htP nbuttuuu unuipba ant jut 'tjtitpt ptnp^fc tru 
tuufu* fuou£ t ^bpnt. utilttLp tfp pbutt[l?ftlip% \vnqjt ij.nt.pu bttut.y 
hpD. *hbpu Jinutg. t Qbunt-U utt.ua nut If^tU puutt- , H c / t/0 /» piT >»«</ 
rtputfiiutfiu u%C iuftutft pntuut \\buAtpp butnfiL tfptt £ f nt * LuitT 
Lu/unt-ftt tubtnb ftJutnuttfyt }\tunu^bu»bt. tipput ttt nt.pl utQtuu 
tuputft ptju»J*t \\bpfbpu utbuutp Jkp putpbLutdjtt }\jn y utttg* 
butt op \\tuJunb utbuutt Qplipp. Lp jnLuuttT fik J?f t > 'i^PfCL 
(Very SOOIl) n.utp&butt iuftutft uibubbd* nuihftl^tux f| i-pOkr blftut. 
ujjo, uuttftuLpt Z^tuimlrltulrplil/h buuiut gjrpt/u (feV6r) opphiL^ 

*^£_ k nv - t^V 1 

Translation 66. 

Where is my stick ? You will find it there in the 
corner («Af/&«.fc). I beg your pardon, it is not there ; 
it must be elsewhere. Did you seek it? Yes, I / have 
sought it everywhere, but J could find it nowhere. 
This house is very pretty outside, but inside it is 
not so pretty. Is your father up stairs? No, sir, he 
is down stairs. Must I go to the right or (flk) to the 
left? Go to the right; that road is shorter. We often 
take a walk. My cousin has (is) at length departed. 
Formerly my neighbour was rich, now he is poor. 
This is the first time that I am (fo» f..«w^«T) [in] 
Paris. Where is my niece? She is not here; she is 
elsewhere. How far did you go yesterday? I went as 
far as (Jph^ki.) the station. Carry all that (»yt p»utv) 
up stairs. That village is not so far; do you see it 
yonder? Where is my Armenian Grammar? I have 
left it somewhere. Is Edward here ? No, he is below. 
I hope that you will dine with us to-morrow. We ex- 
pected him the day before yesterday. When will you 
set out? To-morrow or the day after to-morrow. He 
is more frequently at the coffee-house than at home. 
We will always be satisfied with our fate. Shall you 
soon come back ? Yes, immediately. I am seldom alone. 

G* 



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84 



Thirty-Seventh Lesson. 



c) Adverbs of quantity (+ 
r - r -|«A). 

«#*«/% only, but. «y4" as. 
uiiyut pk n^ otherwise. 
fop about, tp^pk almost, 

nearly. 
tk"£t il , " m i m tf"fi by half. 
^fil_ little. 4>ti. «£ a little. 
jufcuu* very. i^»» much. 
,f ri?"t $ bow much? 
.pusi.fr how many? 
for pk as if, as it were. 
%j*fca t uik» also, likewise. 

tmjutuk" | itLpkuu thuS. 

pmnpuiflSb quite. 
>«l^ J w %m.>—l. more (or) 
less. 

d) Adverbs of affirmation 
{«*.» M | M .x) y and negation (£-•>— 

"(/" yes. /&/»«?/? really. 
itSb^nufui i {i^i|<0l of course. 
tupif.iupba. t fouitylss in fact. 
jf,(,tM*t.fi , frog indeed. 
i i u tt n U t. % ufo,,^ willingly. 

uutttjn. , u»tutu^ntiiutul;u SUrely. 

tk^Juspjiuii frcig truly. 
t u*htn*uf,*u^jn undoubtedly^ 
ptph*.- perhaps. 
tfj-M-usMUit. hardly. ^ u *^fi* 

scarcely. 
^iuLw'ijiulfui%u*fiiU($ probably 
usp tt kop I wonder. 



e) Adverbs *) of order (f 
•r ^"^ thereupon. 
jkmy 9 u&tlk Jkrfu afterwards. 



~x..j~j~i) <# comparison (f-i- 

P$uutu^u$is enough. 

£f««fv p.u»^iui^iubjt sufficiently. 

uyutufctt, "(fl'l""{' SO. 

tf.»%k t tun. %nt.uMtjh at least. 

tun. tun.tut.kA &t mOSt. 

Jkb-tutui;u greatly. 
y.jjutuu„[,u*piup chiefly. 
tHun'uutLiiputtu^u especially. 

tyuuuiffiu, tutTmuiifuttuku tllO- 

roughly. 
jtuuutLtuua. above all. 
jiut-^ut i t/tuuiuLutuiL rather. 
tujugiuu so many. 
«y»t?"b so much. 

uuinu^fn. certainly. 

£ Mtf » tr i .£r*., u pf,% seemingly. 

"*. no, *_ . . . not. 

tutlkithuft'it # ^ . . . not at all, 
by no means. 

»t_ fi«t not even. 

„i_ Jjttujb not only. 

«^ *«.«#, m*£_ £. . . no more. 

ulhpph^ never. /A#««. nowise. 

f ant Pt fi"-p utbt^g. in vain. 

"t. "*l nor. 

tutituJinj unwillingly. 

^tia.^tu^utn.tufijt on the con- 
trary. 

— f-x). 

fttfn/uuttf by turns, alter- 
nately. 



*) For the numeral adverbs see less. 20, R 3. 



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Adverbs. 86 

mnl^k i"»— besides. j—gnp^upiup successively. 

, v % ,u„ir%, jhmy then. *"»/» at first, in the first 
uSb^wS jj.% ,„ L once again, place. 

once more. jkgtfm'^k" at last. 

Words. 
otnmp$utftu% stranger. 

iu^.iupiuf^ farm. fuilfitinulftuu laconic. 

^b*,), on foot. v » t ,in*%u. i _ to be surprised. 

mj-u»ii cheap. 0upJ-L£_ to cost. 

nuuifc^jj study. i^a^^u ""-"T m ^L to finish. 

>H»ng mind. 4£c9 %br L to lift. 

Exercise 67. 

^uiptfkti Ifp juinuiftpiuuy (ig improving)* tfiuuhuiun^ 
puiiu^ru tuti bifi bp ktifr *lb$ * Si"'*' 'IP?' fit; Jkixutb h( tX 1» h*tu£u 
bp nutu^jy uiju ububut \%>{iuin utqkb bp a.utbbJ % tttujtix || /»>«"/» 
tf»iiptH;x ^J>2C ^/'^"f- f u ^"lftuh\ '|»m^ ftutfttuauihg (tOO) ./?/'£_ 
If nuut l?p t \jv puit-tubuih bbpuih" btPx ||'/' h Z+ u *jtf UJ *V* , ^ ux 
fa>bpbt.u ufuintn[?tfb £i \% 1 nt -P ihh utn.bg ft autihx \\jf- tftupn.p 
bppbp utbutuh" linTx ^tut-tuuiubtutnupuip outtupuibuiti Jph £» 
\pbp uitLtuptubp Btunutotib ^bn.nt. ♦ £■ , uWlip juiauiftt ^ but ft 
k ' kfifl-uthp ^ntix \\n. tua.tui.oih >"/»" ufttiui nubjtu Xbp pfuiptf.*. 
t/iuunt-fr) buAip u%Ot *fcbtf ou/uft L tub a. nub tuunt.fi uf^-urp £t 
\\n. Iint-uiah i/ba bufba.nuh t Q\ . jiiupn.uib fnbuut ttubahmbtuh 
tfiupa. Jph £. u*l a buitf % a* Ln luuiinuiufiiuiti^r upyuxx \ff»pbn 

ik*/* tjuiftdtubtup ibp tujuuf(ru pubint-u (at your saying so) i 

f|iyt fyu**Q* (will) ^**J/t $"h TGtuJptuj Iff]* 

Translation 68. 

That little girl is beautiful indeed. He will by 
no means succeed. In Marsovan grapes and red wine 
are cheap. Formerly there were many princes in Itaty ; 
now there is only a king there. George is at the 
most 20 years old and has (is) already finished his 
studies. We went there by turns. Will you come to- 
morrow evening? I would rather come the day after 
to-morrow. Miss Alice would undoubtedly have written 



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86 Lesson 38. 

more politely ^rnqm^m^g k k r u l" i L)) if you had given 
her time enough. I shall certainly punish that lazy 
boy; perhaps he will then learn better. When the 
body is sick, the mind is so likewise. Lift up your 
eyes and admire ($b ,u u£p) (on) the beautiful sky. 

Thirty-Eighth Lesson. 

2. Derivative (-t-*.&- L ) Adverbs. 

a) Adjectives are used as qualifying (»pw J«#J«#^) ad- 
verbs without changing their form, as: 

•t^Ofabk beautifully, »&j»j» hopelessly, i*?- much, 
4?bi- little, etc. 

b) Nouns in the Instrumental case, as: 

UL(iuijuni.£if-trMUi/p gladly, ^•/tt»uu$in.p-hut$ia. wisely, untnnJ 

heartily, »bp"i. willingly, fbt AJ b intentionally, etc. 

c) Nouns repeated, as: 

fa,. L Jjt fsnM.jj, in crowds, k—PbL k M PbL * n drops, 
*«£ t —bq_ in some places, 4!*— imp 4—1^^ from city to 
city, etc. 

d) Nouns with their Ablative, as: 

^#«#c£ &«*«. from tree to tree, -ik »*»& from house 
to house, etc. 

e) Infinitives (as Gerunds) in the Instrumental case, 
with or without the negative prefix, as: 

'"-ibii'i. with pleasure, 1^.^%^^^ ignorantly, etc. 

f) Nouns and adjectives are formed into adverbs by 
the addition of —p—pt #«^"» c^ an( i m kb* as: 

-) -f w l bold, .g-1-f.-t boldJy; jb^p foolish, jb^-p* 
-Ft foolish^; p-pk^u,J-f~ t in a friendly manner; 
^u,i-f- P in a princely manner, etc. 

f) Jhhr-^. giea%; ^^--jt.- bitterZy; j-y^b e vi- 
dent, «/«3f«»fc«-it'» evident^, etc. 

f) y..i-u*(,pi r ^ gayfy; o*«.o#«t# r frx richly, etc. 

r ) juAsfjiuphr-W suddenly ; n*.^ direct, '»-ri?\l directty; 
pkpt.-ft lightty, etc. 

g) Besides these, there are many adverbial locutions 
of which we will mention only a few. 



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Derivative Adverbs. 



87 



Such are: 



I(,u%Iu„,l. beforehand. 
mwtfUL. gradually. 

ifhpP r %i- ittrpp- \ sometimes, at 
hppbSR* bpphtRi ( 



th 



Len. 



th^nuji, tacitly 
Jkt{Vi* /* Jk*i at once, etc. 



phpimt-tj i ig-fff by heart. 
f» l»*.p in vain. 

fu,mn.%l»funu r u't. pell-mell 

fun. mytftT for the present. 
fiuHgwn. to the end, entirely. 

i[bp/f/irpnj t $tupbi-»ui>gfi Sliper- 

ficially. 

Remark. 

Adverbs form their degrees of comparison like 
adjectives, as: +he M or *hrfi % easily, <»^it thr* 9 - 
more easily, etc. 

Words. 

^^p.uf^mfttup unfortunately. 



, un .t»£$»rt offer, proposal. 
<$utp**utnt_f£{,t3i fortune. 
ptupopn*.p-ftA welfare. 
^utg»iitf( piano. 
.{,„p» r f>f( (thunder)storm. 

pbibn. pole. 

mpuiig. fast, swiftly. 
i itlt Jiu 3 slow, -ly. 
£nu»n f £nt.ut»i/_ quickly. 
iut>*Dl_ sweet, -ly. 
i/w^#f«./rneat, -ly. *«»V grave- 
ly- 
^.u^ipAuitf free, -ly, frank, 

JunumntliuliJn_ to COnfeSS. 

r . lu ^,h L to distribute. 
piitf.nt.%li^ to accept. 
{,«£«•&-££_ to persecute. 

cupied with. 



(u.ufrfu.u^b^ gropingly. 
qb$u,%&i,Bup,up generously. 
jiuifiuibuA eternally. 
<j,„w«ym 7 constantly. 

*Z7^» ♦*■" ""*- ♦*"* P un ^" 

tually. 
JtqiT gentle, gently. 

ifi-lfih fully. W"»ti % half - 

funinup^wpt-p humbly. 

;««,«/* I remain, a^rf- Yours. 

(,.„p/,% ji»pf.*"i><ig most re- 
spectfully. 

uibp^—ptituopk'b $ *ihp^opk^» elo- 
quently. 

^^u'L.ufj, qhpu^a^ admirably 

$.uJ7,lb L to convince. 

t^h-uti-plri^ to draw. 

T u P %k u ».hb L to play. 

,[u,p,u.(,l_ to deal with. 

syunnbpiuqJpl_ 9 }«.»*/£_ to fight. 

„$n.b u ^ii"i ( b L to spread. 



Exercise 69. 

H/xi*?. 4^"l^' Iguidiug Jfi ^uylrpt ^numni[_ L^nt-fi* hf""* 



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88 Lesson 88. 

£t fttuVhfilf butbp ^fn-u/bn. fa t ^utt/tupiut^ funuinnJuihbgkjt 
Aarp fjbpnt-fi} fn%hbpp i J\vutat-u»b- ftiituuinai.pirtuJp. ttu/t^iui^ 
fr ftp tuuspq.bi%bppi (\t,putfum.fj but dp. (j p%n.m\tfttT Xbp uia.ui*. 
0MY«y/f » ^tfputniLutputp bapuvgtH-gffyp (lost) Jbp p n £f*p ^uipnu^ 
tnnt PfiuUpt jfrtuutuutt.app tun u$utopl~h J*upXtu*npnuLautt.i " l/«- 
jituqutgfc .gwquifi ufftinft ^tupu»bl^£ quiltnlfg u « M £//'/» fuusp* 
fuusthbinti n.nt.np bn dtbtnivt;px \\uyupp Jwr^uthXUutptup ubpba 

bp flzbwJfi'l'pn*-"* %lrpuku £tinp$uip-nj (Nerses the Grace- 
nil) ushnt-tin tufttnft tutupft jun-ftu»bt*su t ^b'bpfiLnu f« . ftp 
^tutumtu^ltbpat.u pnpopnt-Pbrtuup l^n ujtuputtufcp ^utuuttuutqt 
\fflk ^tuLtumtupifiuufku l^tumtupl^p (fulfill) &irp tutu pin tubus*. 
unt-prftL.uubpp % tuft in ft JbbtupnLpp uitlbu t/tupn.^t jfonfit- tutu*, 
^fytig (observe) opktyubppt "£J>uttufy Or nt-nntul^ft uuti/iuQut- 
utnt^t t^lttu trt. ipuiq.ftp%bpp (newspapers) /*^7* « \Sb^nt m fyiuunt-fu 
l^o Ljifrpt }\ju utiLutni. (this mOming) bqpoptt%u uit-b^fi 
butunt-fu trnujx \\t-btft utn^b £ Jbptfbt tubnp tuniuftupbpt 
M&iin 3iftbpl~li tuubift bustling bn utssibu (go)* 



Translation 70. 

Speak more gently to the child. They are fully 
convinced that you have done wrong (u,u[um».usb- <^?). 
We humbly begged (from) your uncle to pardon (to) 
us. We generally (/■>#7-<J*^/»«»«y4«) conclude $—*.—(»— b\p) 
our Armenian letters; dear Sir, Yours sincerely, or I 
remain, Sir, Yours most respectfully. Come nearer. 
The little girl draws very well ; she draws better 
than her sister. Bishop Papken has spoken very 
eloquently. Miss Alice plays the piano admirably. 
Fulfill your duties punctually. The thunderstorm came 
suddenly. Deal well with your enemies. Clean your 
boots very well, then bring them directly (to) my 
room. Nobody is constantly fortunate {putpbpu,,^) in 
this world. The house was half burnt (»«//»«•*-). n And he 
went out, and wept bitterly". The wounded (#/»««!-«/») 
soldier fought bravely. „And spread the truth from 
pole to pole". (The) times will surely change. 



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89 



Thirty-Ninth Lesson. 



Conjunctions (tri\ mm i L h)- 
The conjunctions most frequently used in Armenian 
are the following: 

&l, »t &nd. »i_. . . »*_ neither . ; . nor. 

%,uku also. «'£_ too. b u h even. ««//_ £«- but also. 

puyg, iyi_ t u*ulp»j% but. ft'£yk«t ''(*fk» as. 

£#«*/% pk or. "i. •*»/_ nor. triuy Pt* ib »# ^««#4 lest. 

£^? k $ pk »p if. "#"«?£" so. "yt»ik" -p so that. 

/2£ . . . ^£ both . . . and. pk i_. - <-, f "Jtf «#'yA ^* 

fw/i/*. . . f «/«r either . . . or. except, unless. 

ijuiu% q^ f fii'ihi ffi'i»t- »/» be- "/» that. »«»^'» ^££ »/_# else, 



cause, for. ^«»>' ^*£ than. 
n/ f«Y4« ib in order that. 



otherwise. 
trppt ir/rp»fi when, as. 



\u,ji, trt. uy%$y£» however, p k&*-t pk'yk— though 



nevertheless. 

npnif^kmbi., ^*-%f» up SHICC 

tlp*L' Jfrttb*- while, where- 
as. 
pk phi**- why. 



»tLuinf$ therefore. 
<;L. n Li..„ F u* r consequently. 

%ifttt%u*iuk" t ^iitjhu^u $u£^ SO, 

likewise. 
itLptrtfti f *»f*if- then. 
,lpi ti ht. „ P till, until. 

i)"PL»'*l't "piwrf 1 -p as long as. 

• 

Words; 

it^tr^. reed. ^"""^u b" , t , ^ ML i"t mm L ^o 
fnva-hba school-fellow. advise. 

i.„i»i n fi,»puJf»Lpfli.% educa- £**^to bend. fr»»pz[*iio shun. 

tion. mJnLM%am%m[_ to marry. 

-&Vi,u*gl* Chinese. HT^bL *° move. 

gf, t [. (pron. gn»t"'b) shawl. PvttL to become wet. 

q.nph- f npuM^nuiT profession. m ptbd r L to forbid. 



$,„%0f. U if,u,o t ii quietty. 
,u%h-u,%op unknown. 
i^,un.,ui,i,p ambitious. 



if.$um pu»%u»i_ to enter an 

action against. 
t[»*ut%b L to waste. 
>*p-l^i_ to fix. 



Exercise 71. 

%hp b%x hi^tn in * n b* p*us tt k nm vbp x kflt V ng -'ikg 



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90 Lesson 39. 

(will) trpfufbfify PiU"/* "bC^d^E wn-tHpfthnt-P/iuhn £tl. ftinp^. 
y]*gkj> Jhan§.pb%k'b* YfPt Quutnt-uub- ^yftt utn^bp % ft 12^1* 

4'ui£fusMiinf,% (labour) nu*/u ^tnqulrp^ (who build it)« lr^ty? 

##* JfcuajU {tlutu.uii.nftp* "Ui ^ rt - f*"U*u.at.^{t% nt. {sj/uuSbut-^pu 
uthuutbux yflbjiLui Irpplru uiftuih *uaJn[i f outiift np ^"^//_ v* 
*Y*uinnijtufy{>ijblrpku ntltubo (sOIIie) ^fn-u/bn. iru $ ^&utirt.utputp 
tu/tuth iLpbuiU O-U/pniJ a - Ui l* H > nHkBP (fP TGuibJUuitT n£_ pp 
Lft%nt Qnuun abut int. UiT % ouibqfi ^huushn. trtTi J^a^u/una tf^ 
tun, | uiutui Ph n > ut ft tali Ppffiu » ^nt-utaJ utftutjt JbLufiJ* 
(SOt Off), uuifuylf 1ml. ujhuf^u iJftP Ifpifutp op£ npn^Lfj &,J U 
*>pfn*pn~p ^uttF ufjiutji $uutpfc UuitT ufftut^ trpa.^1 \f fijut ujui*. 
wtrpuiaUutrp ujfiutfi nuu»% *J"p£*uifi thutivuiu^p Lu tfutpn.ftlft 
^)irsP a-fiuth-p Pfc pt£iu, £uplrij fiuit H| . QppiutT !j } pufc 1^4*1 
tuhmft iwiTiH-ubuiUusj Jjih^lrt. np q-nph" Jit nOlitrtiuy (he has) < 
^uipun pi£ n.biiuttn[i (VOUIlg) k Pt? u-lrnusuft* \ f t- uuilfUMju 

(y©t) he. n»p+h 

Translation 72. 

Carelessness and idleness are the causes of mis- 
fortune. If I had had («i>fyu»A- pji-jfr) faithful friends, 
[ should not be in this condition. He waited quietly 
till his friend returned. Why do you not eat meat? 
Because (the) meat is forbidden to me. I stayed [in] Boston, 
as long as I had [any] money. Either you will pay 
(to) me, or I shall enter an action against you. Although 
he has no fortune, yet he has given («*««.«**- £) a good 
education to his children. You will be happy, when 
you are doing your duty. The Chinese neither drink 
milk, nor do they eat butter or cheese. It is very 
cold this morning, therefore I should advise you to 
take a shawl. Your brother has been [at] London, so 
have I j but he cannot go [to] New- York this year, 
nor can we. Printing was unknown when Homer wrote 
the Iliad (bqk-k"^)* Do not waste your time, for (the) 
life is made of it. 



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91 



Fortieth Lesson. 



Interjections O-y^-rJ—W-^tr). 
The principal interjections are: 

~% £ how fine ! 4tv on dear me ! 

wju % ,u$ 9 ,,tj ah! »<> oh! £»«.«. hush! hist! 

i,*Liifr^ t u»tf$uiui % ijutf alas ! woe ! ««-^ > wtfop- fie ! pish ! 

«^7^?t *'/"*} what a pity! £*£ **^ woe unto you! 

b v .»%Fpk> fop*, pk oh that! <#/ , fiWifi holla! holloa! 

would that. . .! 4vAr» **"' b e onC ' begone! 

<;«"^«', w '7f» «>*' on! come $£#££» ^vF hurrah! huzza! 

on! go on! long live! 

quTptfiuitg , y«y» J? t *% ojfff st range! h^os^"* ""y/»A" bravo! well 

"7^* # hail! «•»*'» lo! done! 

•ihfofi" away ! f^A/ 9 stop ! •/?'«"«- /A#A God forbid. 

of.%ntp/fL% help! tf»4 i"y S£/» nqnpJInat zounds ! 

fire! 

*'""«../? u M m» L ^ thank God! God be praised! 
S£/» U""""-*"*' » U"""'^'"^ A^Glood Heavens! My God! 



Words. 



uftputf(f% darling. 
T-tfw scribe. 
frupfftirgj, Pharisee. 
t(trq&iULi,(i hypocrite. 
Jh n u,L.n V sinner. 



tliiunu 
i&utrnuthti 



tabernacle. 
Pfi^% ingrati- 



tude. 
i»^««.»/i transient, fleeting. 



tuaiuua 



t£uuttr[ to save ; *f«//. 
to be saved. 



f-$un.ni7it 



*'T*L 



inherit. 



Exercise 73. 

W^/itf ufipu»t[Ut%u Jbitiuut XP^r^i fip tf.lrnbg^nt.pbut%pi fl"^, 
utnubu $ujplrguiui ^u#t/£/?, ""l™/ *^P fittrrff.nL.uib- £- (lS drOWned) « 
\\f>tjg£ ]tftuitj.ojfnMi <\*o[k?ft Hjuj itrq^ (unto yOll)* q-tyfiphtrp 
ire tfiuipfiuhgfi%lrpt IW/'A'"* PTt nt ~ .^ u "-" tutu 'l'fi u ' % bwnuyt 
\\np[i[ty tytrnbtuenpt \\trgtjg Jbp tyuyuppj £ (well)t ufuipnb, 

in*.™ £pl? (make haste)* sfy U f/o "»*-"'^* A^ q-^^zf"-^ 



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92 Lesson 41. 

P/iiX (dp) 1 tyutitj* \\uutni-bnj , utqutmlrijuibgx ^Irqutt-np'blrpp^ 

^.J-nftig ujfiwfi &pPu/li 9 ijujj JhqutL.n^ift'ht tyta/ifi' (blessed are) 

^ntf/intf^ (in Spirit) utq^>uiut%b[inL% , ou*l/qfi tjuhnhp ujfiuif$ tfut^ 
n.ut%ifL% bpfyft'lfufi p$uij.uia.npnt-P[n%pi £uy«£ f ^t ifm% pu*pf> 
mq$uj Jjtlt bu % fyf*. Pk /"T nptg-fu £/£J"//v«« 0'*»i «•/»/' 
ajibni.np'bhp , ut^tu PjUuiJfihi ^u/«yu#, bj£p % bpP&uhg usu^x 
l|^uy t Jhntjujp oftui •£""- lf*f)[*\ ^j"^ % dhngwb I^^IJ fl% » /**!£_ 

fint-fi6t[_ butqfif {*%)* h^m^u "h'^lt (unliable) £2* ^i. 

p^tu^wpuiVlilrpq.t fff^ 9 ^"t/P t^t ^tujp f»J % % ^u/LfT (how) «i£fc- 
bnuiL. (has been) ^«/* utujirpusfuuint-p ftL%u t {\n9yk 4±I*H) /««-«. 

"/*» hftfyi ^vWv (land! land!)* lr^-y (peccavi!)* 

Forty-First Lesson. 



Defective (^-J-— — r ) Ferfo. 

Verbs whereof some tenses are wanting, are 
defective verbs. 

They are the following: 

flKuMF I have, supplied from ««.^/rt»u#^_«) to have. 

PreS. —AfriTf iilSiJm , ni%k ! nu%k%o , n*%fop ," nL%jtl$, 

Imperf. »«.*»£/&, u*%ki»p t ««fc£/»; n^%kf»^ % m.%^f^ 9 »$.%£fi%, 

Perf. uAhrguy , uiXkgtup f $$c%kifutL* ) nublrgtuUg t m.%trgu* % g , 
Imper. nL ^*biffip t *l$ ut3ik%iup • $tL.%tryl%n t iQl nt.it Irtr <**/», 

«M»SblF I know, supplied from y^—fc^ 1 ) to know. 

PreS. f-^mfri/% t^ftu»bu % tf/$ut^' } i(unlr%p t t^fiu,^ t y.jnnb% • 

Imperf. ft—ty » flunk //» > ffi—kp ; tb—kltyg » tb—kkg * th—kpt 
Perf. tb—g—j $ tfr—y tu p » i-fi—w"*- ; tb—y—'Hg % tfr—n-ig » t/ 1 *^' 
Imper. i-fr—vfc* Jf f-/»m%utp' *ff»—g£p t Jf» ^««»%«^. 

blT or iiUIT 8 ) I am, supplied from £/£f-7_ to be or 
to become or +-%»»-fi L to be or to be found, as : I have 
been in Berlin, *|Ay/iMr y.«A»i.««A- *«/\ 



*) This verb follows the 3 d conjugation, excepting the 
Perfect and Imperative. 
') See less. 13. 



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Defective Verbs. 93 

tiP%UU to be able. 
Pres. foltiuiT I can, %/&*"* $ f/*«7 ; l/pi»—%p , ^/»^«^ 9 fc%$*% t 
Imperf. jfphuyfri !(pi'»yf»pt kv'""V\ kfo-ufiif!* kp*"vkpt fc%i*/fi%. 
Perf. foffv* b7» kvd' ut -\ ifff-tyf kro'tg* kpo u,% * 
Imper. hvijf'v* rf tr*""r\ ira^p* *V tr^"^* 

The Infinitive. 
The Infinitive is also used substantively, and as 
such, is declined after the 3 d dec. (see less. 8), both 
definitely and indefinitely. 

Examples. 

Hiding and dancing are agreeable bodily exercises. 
It is more blessed to give than to receive. 
My son learns to read English. 

$i&t f 1_ «r^-*fr^»- ^—rtyigp nutibrjiuj. 

I had the pleasure of seeing you. 
I do not object to your going there. 

W^tutylrpmp jiil%iu($£% tmpmm*»t[\ &iu%&piuijtuh- £/r. 

The pupil was tired of (from) reading Greek. 

<t|M»m»L^Mtf?#£f# y—f+^tm^ tuawm&rtj l*\p*{b\pp^. 

He saved himself by jumping through the window. 

The English accusative before the Infinitive is 
changed in Armenian into the genitive. Ex. : 

I heard my friend sing at a party. 

But this may be also expressed by changing the 
Infinitive into a subordinate clause with «/■ or p-k y 
in which the accusative appears as nominative. Ex. : 

We know him to be a valiant general, or as if 
it were; 

We know that he is a valiant general. 



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94 Lesson 41. 

\\ } nt-qbiP mm »iNk.f XT tM "t t^jt ufbtufcuibufb uaiutntimt-p-^A^ 

I wish you to read the history of England by 
Macaulay. 

The Infinitive after hoiv, what } where is . either 
changed into a subordinate clause as above, or the 
pronominal suffixes -» r* t or * an( i x h* x lr> l t x ( see 
less. 16) are to be appended to it. Ex. : 

V^l e^^L m • K^hh^" hl^^i? **- '"-? ^eP' ut t m t^j* q.fr*»bp t or 
Qts f f,^b r pi or - P Pl nH'* b % u& u t 1 t / *"- "«r hP'~ f - 
I do not know what to do, how to do, and where to go. 

Words. 
ftrrfi slave. «"*-/t^«Ar?.«»$ cou- /-»«fcj.~— »p dangerous, 
rier. «.x$o#*\f unpleasant. 

JJtpwfLiijJ- SUrg60ll. bniunttniuq^tn t fitiin^tuiuiuntn 

tf«ip mind. gratefiil. 

p/,p L,i.%/,t( butterfly. ^««/»*»^f*#},-«#/iu. r continually. 

tuJofl- fhtufutuuifrp , shame, dis- ^$*itn$»»pbiu»iqbu perfectly. 

grace. fub^yf* clever. 

us^us^ proverb. faqbulfc ancient. 

jm-ai-Pl,^ silence. ju,fo%b L% u,^nb^b L to 
i} w/ .i«Y^ character. frighten. 

♦A*l? passion. *.u, P JM,%b L (ft/ip) to dress. 

^wwt^m^ intention. £*«%- L to endeavour. 

q.tu£hu*t(y,iLp(iu% confedera- t tut, t u '^'^L* m nbitL to hinder. 

tion. 

Exercise 74. 

Qu*if§uiqu*%ij £usut (tOO much) l uou l'ICL ifauthq.uii.nn t * 

Uj* Ju»pq.n 3 (people) f»u*i.u>ia (laughing) /ty&«#«» offc^urifo/ 

17 1 1^)1/7/ u -l , l , tJh ut 11% or in utLuujjt ^uinfig (gOOd) i* u ^ r t_ unJp£: 
WoftffU Hju/nirfff uibuiub J^ut fl'> i l iU if3 utbnn bpqbni tuuifr 
bJ't \)('(* Jbn nutpbLutuubpn L t ott%bu $tbq a. npbb^t i_ , itiuiit* 
'"filE (WO OUght to) bjtu*{uuiuitj.I^ui i>[lfl uibnbgx y\_u$qc. 
nibqutbuubtnc ^usZCnjjtp iqfiut/i tiL&buus'hu (shall W6 h&V6?)- 
*\+bi$libbpn qhunhutinJ ftk [* u £_ utjiuifi I* §§"*(> ^au>bt.$Mslipi»* 

(knowing what the consequence would be) i/iui/u^b^i. 
(to run oft) uSunfiu^, £nt.%k/>ut llV'l"' Jbubtunc (dying) 



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Present Participle. 96 

ifout t?f* Sq^V »fi"fiit$thUi^ (instead of) ftp ij.uiu£ uni[ptr[ni. x 

ftpuit. (he did SO)* lt//»««'/««/«/^» utyuiut. $yuipdlu%hi 'fcttPf** 

i|tt/^#/u/^n^ (by reading) fc foP&>'p (form) Ap «^«^?^f* 

Xvut^qnufll uh£ Jkb tjn^nrjnt PfriVblrp (sacrifices) (Aitr£ntf_ 

(by making) 4&#g» /'V/'V (obtained)* i^^tT £*. U^f 
u/iftnt.'h pfcpbnhfilg j^ 'h^Juipb^^ (perceiving)* £«#Wj/ifc 
fttt'bh^ ijuyh (to catch it)* n£ #y» (whoever) /fy» •y«*//?i«a# fc 

^tMMltnt-PfitX^ £p fyutuuvptrfi y wfttf-uthft (worthy) ^t tf^pif fyn*. 

£nub[nt- (to be called)* 

Translation 75. 

To know nothing (/=«'*, utf n,%iU ip) 19 n0 disgrace, 
but it is [an] absurdity (i»%—l* L —.pfti.%) if a man will 
know {V»<-ik qf»^%,u L ) everything. One (J»»r*) must be 
prudent in speaking (^o»^t «££); an old proverb says: 
speaking is silver, but silence (i^- h in) [is] gold. Before 
contracting (<Ji««««™«mfy£ .»^,.,£) friendship with a man, 
one ought to know (lyw/""^ ffin>%»> L ) his character per- 
fectly. The desire to appear (£/f*«-%«Y«c ^^^»^^) clever 
often hinders [one] from becoming so. It is a shame 
to obey (#«>«"«£ ) [one's] (to) passions. The art of dancing 
was already known (a-#«>*o^) to the most ancient 
nations. By working much [at] (the) night, my eyes 
have grown weak (—f—p-ijuih- £>#). Napoleon had the 
intention of uniting (JfrwgMnni) all Europe into (under) 
one great confederation against England. (The) singing 
delights (fe ijm».iu P *,»fl%k) the heart. Hasten to finish 
((fff^bp.u) your letter, for the courier leaves (fe» «/&fty) 
in half an hour (ifk» «*»«»/£}#). 

Forty-Second Lesson. 

lite Present Participle. 
The Prcs. Participle*), which is derived from all 
verbs by adding the syllable -t, or ft. to the root, 
is very frequently employed. 



i) See aso less. 26, Remark. 



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96 Lesson 42. 

1. It is used as an adjective qualifying a substan- 
tive. Ex.: 

-fo-L *%/» "£ * loying mother. 

b'Vft —pktwfe the rising sun. 

L—0-L JufiiMi-fe the weeping child. 

^M»«/?*yt^ utuj—ijujij Jfc a convincing proof. 

* % li\. /»**■- «£ & n oppressive burden. 

"VHWi. A *^*/ 1 consoling words. 

Note. The present participle terminating in ^ is 
derived only from active verbs in t^, and having lost, 
in many cases, the nature of both a verb and an ad- 
jective, has ussumed that of a substantive designating 
the agent of the action indicated by the verb from 
which it is derived, as: 

Qctfil. Saviour, «ty/»«</£. baptist, ty-eti, inventor, 
%f^ r /,^_ painter, «««y««^^ printer, —«fol>i_ barber etc. 

2. The present participle in -^ renders a rdative 
phrase formed with who, which, what (see. less. 30, R. 2, 
Note). Ex.: 

fby% «y«*/t««j»«£»^ fa Jfc or i&£_ •£ -f P'tfr he •Y w * 

A bottle containing poison or a bottle which con- 
tains poison. 

^uttip Quiuttuimmm utniuk OT —tnui*U mm /**"&(» hp fuiutitssp . 

The boy playing in the yard or the boy that 
played in the yard. 

Note. It is also employed substantively, and as such, 
is declined after the first declension. 

W* uttij$'lih tffii* a.uih»mjt x n.t*s%& lip a.tn't*£ • 

Whoever finds a virtuous wife, finds a treasure etc. 

The Past Participle. 

1. The Past Part is derived from all verbs by. 
adding the syllable -* or t- r ') to the root, as: »£/»-* 
or "fir^r loved, ^o«-.^ or /«©«.t p spoken etc. 

2. It combined with the auxiliary *-r or w^ 
serves to form the compound tenses of verbs (see less 
13, R. 1), as: 



>) See also less 26, R. 



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Future Participle. 97 

f . / v«> hf or trh kJ% I have written; fv~> or f^l>r 4^ 
I had written etc. 

3. The past part, in *»> is also used as an adjective, as : 
£W> &-««^ Jfc a withered flower. 

4»ut r ~). i-rfc «£ a broken pen. 

Jhn_~i ju$ n Jfc a dead man. 

mqki f«»^«»«.« / fi.«.-.> m^ctr^ well furnished houses. 

Note. The past part, terminating in t-^ (retained 
from the Ancient Armenian) is occasionally employed 
in the same sense, as : 

o r <JH~L Qekt'L blessed Saviour. 
itL#4.~ L m y\f,% «/f» a learned lady. 
h-$*tfl.~ L .p—qvtp Jp a flourishing city. 

4. The jpostf ^artf. in -> renders also a relative phrase 
(see less. 30, R. 1, Note). 

Note. It is also employed substantively, and as such, 
follows the first declension, as : 

uthuuibm what I have seen, «*««»^« of what I have 
seen etc. 

The Future Participle. 

1. It is derived from all verbs by adding fr^- or 
~^- to the root. 

2. It is used as an adjective, as : 
fufttmtf^l*.- £»M»%f£ , The danger to be avoided. 
ti^f.-.^ f/^ *£ , A book to fa read. 

, n«-*"i-Lr~ $"9 *"- A^ir- J&"r« Bread to eo£ and water 
to drink. 

3. See less. 24, R. 4. Ex.: 

M, Jp j-Hl— W t 1 have to buy a horse. 
S »*.*'£ \l%~£- 1>s 9 I am to stay at home. 

4. It assumes the nature of a substantive by chang- 
ing its termination 1^- or ~tr- into S-rf* or ~(J*» as: 

CrWJ* ■£ »**»lfg9 Have you anything to say? 
ty»rt-$+ •£ i»J»fi'Tt I have iwthing to read. 

itfu,/, mpuil* Urf* 

Elementary Armenian Grammar. ? 



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98 Lesson 42. 

„It shall be given you in that same hour what ye 
shall speak." 

Words. 

Jkt fog. £'?/ vapour. t g U .£u, i k i ,fe encouraging. 

tytfot *■*-•)& earth. gp»L.b^ to disperse. 

JotuLup , ^thrpp-tn.$uh- poem. ^uitpib^ to form J ^usaJnL^ tO 



ftvfcuvutifuSb fugitive. be formed. 

iuuu^but knight. M«t/ty cloud. 

jpfiv^tuf incident. i^^ utr i/—~^i_ amusing. 

$tuutti-3inunuAt college. 

Exercise 76. 

\j*tuo.nq^ utpbo-utl^p t^p gpnt-k u%o.nt W^u^bpn o.b*nb^u 
putpXpuignn^ (arising) ^nu.l»blrpk til ^otptt-fiut ^^itlfH 
nuiut%utunpUbp iuu»pnt%usfan (containing) V-ft/U* *% uibuiub- 

InTt \s % u>pp dulling (setting) u*pbt-£ fa gnugukp (indicated) 

fl-£r utbou.nL.ut iu/iui[t pnutp (it WOUld be) thuifnuunjuLutulbbpn 

^tu^ia^&^a (pursuing)* bpifipp. u»pf-——**-npnn_ (fructifying) 
u/uXpbt. (rain) dpU kp* \T»»H pef> (I listened) flop ^«^ 

f*»[kpt»£_ fuougbpnA t <^p.outrgnt-g(t£_ (prOn. pq_> . .) tfiriu *{» 
iiL i^Pt""^* M^ nuau bsvfunf^ (selling) %f»u dp fa utlrubbd^t 
Hi/** %np ^pbpuj^LuttnL.f^btMth ui$uuiu.pfi^it at. <^putuiu/putbh^gL 

«t|. Qf-iPnu i|/ioi/ (Julius Groos) £« f)'-'""04££ t n $ *" "*•* 

u/ti-tMuipu/bf, ni.uutunn%bpfru t ^p^^CL unupirb u/t-bf/i ^1°P 

(mighty) k * iffy typtfita Q<»pn-u*uusuf> (Jordan) Jkf_ «^»i»- 

utat-baiuL. Qni^yu/ltt^u \pfawff^!*t \\utubtnp t[$utut$ub bu 

L^bwL (discouraged and dejected) Lfbptun.iup&usL.t \\Jb1k^ 

usl.u[P (the mOSt) jutpu.nL.uib- Jut pup tip J"* utdbuuitnu Ju»p$t.p 
£Jr< Qutofusfu uufl/biuni-ubui/ Jutpnftfy (people) utJbuutn.^2 ufrp 

(hand) (fniSbbuuth (write)* \\M* Jlupn-nu tjbufhpp Jfigu*^ 

iflrujbpnL. £Uipuyu*pbu>^ (continued) £q&"y dpb 1 1 ft*-Punt!b 
muipbl^utb ^utuusffih u%f(&,t the age Of. . •) nlbnuiL. b-bpnu*. 
%Jth uftpncmb- At. Jbbutpnuuib utJku t/utpn^-t \nL.bnubinc 

b&lbriL (the problem to be solved) ^utnapq.nL.bau,t. (was 

Communicated) P n ["P nL.uuiunqbbpncu % "fru lfbput^m.p 

(meat) nt%fitT nunb^ni. (to eat)* \?u pttb^hgu t^funbtT (what 



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Some derivative verbs. 99 

to do)* "z>*4a tbvnqtL (he that observeth) i1tV bua P s^^L 

(SOW), £«- uiduihprn.% %uynqi± (. . . regardeth) ifipliT <&&&£_ 

(reap)*,, 

Forty-Third Lesson. 

Some derivative verbs. 

A. A certain number of active verbs in lx are formed 
into neuter by changing their termination into Jt.. Ex.: 

£uiyu0%uife fe 2»»pJ-k (active i^t^l) JKptbm%* 

The springs moves the machine. 

\j t Lnfi%/t fc ^utftd/t (neuter ^c^id ^vkrb Z2**it&-\ 

The moon moves round the earth. 

Such are: "ur^u — Al to bum, $«^L' — It to melt, 
4»~ r l. Lt — } L to break, J*?^ to put out (the light), «£»/»Jl 
to go out, etc. 

Note. These are not numerous, and follow the 
2 d conjugation. 

J3. Neuter verbs are generally formed into active by 
adding to the root jH^ or S-^Hl* as: 

'''V«4l to wait, mf—mjilL to cause to wait. 

Mn i/ L to die, t/Br^t L to kill. 

""Y/^L to l* ve > ""frW^'L to maintain. 

u p%,$»\m L to sleep, ^Wjit^ to lull asleep, etc. 

Note. A few neuter verbs which do not undergo 
this rule, are supplied by other active verbs, as: *«»£_ 
to stay, p-qnt^ to leave; kpp-i_ to go, b^eh^L to send; 
u,k n %k L to see, 9 -. 9 %h L to show; %£/_ to rise, <>«**£/_ or 
l lti t 3 , ' fr L to raise, to lift, etc. 

6 T . 1. Causative verbs of the 1 st and 2 d conjugations 
are derived from active verbs by adding $Hl or S-^tx* 
and give the sense of employing another as the agent 
of the action indicated by the verb, as : 

"h^L to love, "/taH-L to cause to love. 
A»o«J L to speak, ^o»{.5^^ L to cause to speak. 

2. The causative of verbs of the 3 d conjugation is 
formed by changing the termination of the Perf. «l , •>-> , 
or «y into $Ht.» as : 

/uiii-~ L to laugh, Perf. fait-wrf, Caus.* jttfi^Hi. to 
make to laugh ; f«7»7-~Lto read, Perf. ^"/^"jf » Caus. f«v»- 



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100 Lesson 43. 

7-^^tt to cause to read, to instruct in reading; Jnn\~ L 
to forget, Perf. *&«.$«y , Oaus. Jmn j*t^ to cause to forget ; 
n *.m\. L to eat, Perf. ^p-y , Caus. ttyo^t t° cause to eat, 
to feed. 

3. Those verbs which do not form causatives, supply 
their place by the various forms of -r-t. to give, here in 
the sense of to cause, to make, to have, to let, with their own 
Infinitive. Ex.: 

IT4j»*fct»fe a-* r hk L mmi-fr, I set the machine at work. 

$**.% J}, %u,M-mL#*s&l L if.*./, mu,tT 9 I shall have a house 
built. ' 

iljr r s» r 4»i. Jj. ^fi.k L Mi-fa, You have a coat made. 

£jf» pL%u.£ mXk L "ib'-t --e* He would have me put 
in prison. 

2*t tb m a %y L »ib™b "-ft I shall let you know (send 
you word). 

Avt •£ t M *WV ^'-"^L •ifi—f' «i"»«^i I shall have a 
pair of stockings knit. 

Conjugation of active and causative verbs in $Hl- 
Pres. fc Jkn. a %bJ % I kill, fc Jkn.tf.ku, fc Jkm.tf.1;. fc Jkn. a ^ 

**\£» fc •& m -d lt ke* fc Jkn,tf$k%. 
Imperf. fc JL~.ji.ty, fc Jkm.tf.tyn, fc Am.jfi.ty etc. 

Perf. Jkm.gni.gf, tikm.gnt.gfm, u%ngmt.g. Jkm,gut,gf%g , Jkn.guL~ 

she* t b"-8 mt -ab % * 
Fut. »tfr»b Am-^mJ* etc. 
Cond. **£-£ Jkm- a %ty etc. 

Imper. p-*«_ Jkm-.jt.brS, Jkm.guM.rn, P»o_ Jkn.tf.1; . 
B Jtm-guUttg , Jkm.gnM.gtig , finn^ Jkm-gmku . 

Participles. 

PreS. Jkn. a %nnj 
Past Jkm.gnt.gmh-. 
Fut. Jkm.tf.kimM.. 

D. There is a class of verbs compounded of a noun 
and a verb, which though written separately, constitute 
only a kind of compound verb, as : 

fAu.j % Mmm%fr L to take care of, 

fym. p-u.mlk L to make efforts, 

am% d tf.k L to omit, to neglect, 

m.nM.% a.umh-k L tO Strive etc. 



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Table of the principal forms of verbs. 



101 






i I 



5 

o 



4 

W 
O 

I 
r> 

I 

• 

4i 

9 



I 

u 
o 

*t 
I 

5 

4 






8 

I 
J- 

8 



5 ^ 



u 

o 

1 I 

u 



7*® u • 
















1^7 & * 1 



i 



U^v &« 


















i 



03 









CD 



— I O 






I 



I 

\ 



PI 
O 

o 
o 

S" » 

=3i 



&* 















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102 

Forty-Fourth Lesson. 

Apposition (f- jV^f O « 

A noun or pronoun used to explain another noun 
or pronoun is put by apposition, as in English, in the 
same case. Ex. : 

Milton, the English poet, wrote Paradise Lost. 

Note. The appositive, when followed by the principal 
term (p-yuyuywbivij, remains undeclined, as : 

*bl-tr" (Nile) ?.*«»£, ^i?" t^—ft* *bttr* t^—fr e ^ c « 
The noun in apposition may be placed either before 
or after the noun with which it is in apposition, as : 

Socrates, the Greek philosopher. 

Note. Nouns or adjectives as appositive modifiers 
when preceded by the principal term, take the definite 
article V as: 

<t*£«A 'h-.W/n, /Ae river Danube. 

XPusp^usukpi ;o»t«/M«, Howard, £Ae philanthropist. 

Ifof/tf.^^x b»"uh Isaiah Wle Prophet. 

ir*&*» sfoptul or §for»% if**-, Tigranes Me Great. 

Z^nrfungi «b*jf M £« pr *u*/»"4« ^i»»p^"»ibt Nerses tfAc 
Graceful. 

Nouns in apposition, especially when modified by 
other words, are distinguished from the other parts of 
the sentence by the p—-P (*) » as : 

Qhi/u£iA % QisifiiiaA uUnuthtutt nt$a.A% % \kUifluil;iu»tfh'hls nitL% utu** 



T£u$m-ut-brt 



uil. . 



Joseph, Jacob's favourite son, was sold to the Ish- 
maelites. 

Note. The two nouns are not separated by the 
P'"~p- if both words have become so closely connected 
as to form really one noun, as : 

Q^oqnu uto-tugtrujj^ or \\n-i*gbrutjl <*\oqnu , Paul the ApOStle. 

^[tfn^np \»Luuit.9$i$jif_ or \ m »i-uu*t.itpfi£L ^cfo'T i Gregory 
the Illuminator. 



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.Vocative. 103 

<t\butpnu ^tf-uamuttft Of f{af^ttata.itfX <1\kur[tttn t P©t6f the 

Hermit. 

Vocative ({"tr$~*)« 

The vocative is the same in form as the nominative. 
Vocatives accent their last syllable, as : 
l^uyuipilu 9 tf.na.pu &fyAt.(t t Lazarus, come forth. 

Qtta.tf.tu f ^uaa/fsua.fi&-£t?£ fe afiatattk bat f JudaS, betrayest 

thou with a kiss ? 

PJ-Flk* *?"*- - % *t p^zi^t Physician, heal thyself. 

But when a noun in the vocative is repeated, or 
preceded by an adjective or by the interjection «£ or « 0, 
the accent is thrown back on the last syllable of the 
first noun, or on the adjective or interjection, as: 

b«- 8*rc a."""-* Mt'Rfct \}t"fi&t And the Lord &aid, 
Simon, Simon. 

^turfi t[tufitf.tuufban i Good Master. 

ftqnffiV fit, na/_ \\uu, nL u*& , Have mercy upon me, 
God. 

Vocatives are distinguished from the other parts of 
the sentence by the comma {*m»pmftm) (,), as : 

\?Pk nutfbttf $£(t t ff(t%tuu if fin »(*pbf • 

Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean. 

Z*u*JP t J* nt - itiLntf. f^ tat a.tu% tf.tr tF fitP ^ntf.fiti. 

Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit. 

Remarks on Armenian Construction. 

In simple sentences, the subject comes first, secondly 
the object, and thirdly the verb, as : 

\±tiutna.a*tb- ukf k t God is Love. 

fynt.jao'h £»f.tf#t»t£ ^fttat/tkg, Fulton invented the 
steamboat. 

Note. A noun or pronoun in the accusative, go- 
verned by an active verb, may be placed either before 
or after the verb, but more usually precedes it, as : 

Z, tn jr»il •%. + %lr & or $»«//»" t % fy)t «£• 

My father bought a horse. 

y^ttintiLitth- 1^*^ fe "fok Or }\fnita,ut& fe "bf^ t^t.* 

God loves us. 



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104 Lesson 44. 

Usually, in complex sentences, the circumstances of 
time and place are first introduced; then comes the sub- 
ject; then the object; then the verb, and last of all the 
circumstances of manner or instrument, as: 

In the fifth century of Christ, St. Mesrob formed 
the Armenian letters. 

Our bodies will rise again in the day of judgment. 

Note. This normal order, however, may be frequently 
inverted by removing one of the parts of speech from its 
usual place to the beginning of the sentence, and vice 
versa. 

The remaining rules of construction being essen- 
tially the same as in English, need no further remark. 



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Appendix (e""-h nt - m 



*)• 



I. Selection of useful words. 



1 . sftjfr't* 2%e universe. 



U 



utnnutu 



* God. 



\Xr'»rfle the Creator. 
tuf,ui($u*&£ the creature. 
y rkb % 4? heaven, sky. 
irpyiriitfytMit/tup sky. 
iu£fau*(t<Z world. 
t»(t&L f Mgikf.t*Q sun. 
utntnt^ star. 
JZfnftuity planet. 
£nLufi% moon. 
ifuMpuutiTi tf.ftiitut.np comet. 

kv^k * ^ na -F fire. 
oq. air. 
VfAf earth. 
£»«/» water. 
nt[t(fciu%nu ocean. 
*•«£ sea. 
f.£m river. 
£f»wf brook. 

J-uyn. f tutuutn-tuJ- rOCK. 



llllb island. 

i*n. mountain. 

Pl?*-p hill. 

ln V , ^ n t[f, m valley, dale. 

^u*£ur field, plain. 

ufbmtttn- forest. 

tunt-ftuii grove. 

T£usJpu*j t tynqnutity Way, TOad. 

u$t,ui$i^ sand. 
Jlrmutn^ metal. 

nutf gold. 

uipbrnp- silver. 
^tfitX copper. 
h r t[,»p iron. 
m»qtt(iuui steel. 
tyuiMiun lead. 
p-pp-^t tin* 

ut&nuju, ^miip 9 COal. 

4>»2£ dust. 
^lukp mine. 



2. $..*Aj{. r . Plants. 



wftu, corn-field. 
T J™ kg corn. 
l-wrf* barley. 
tfiupmufy oats. 
iuiftt.fi flour. 
pnf/iti rice. 



^uttCutp rye. 
jn(t&% wheat. 
kwqtll flower. 
py^tuifutqutJfL canliflower. 
^nntf.uttT turnip. 
nutktunftft carrot. 



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106 



Appendix. 



k^uimmgnpifo Indian corn. 

^Jn»-l_ hops. 

ii$»hb$fc hemp. 

^p-% flax. 

kfuutfaatm tobacco. 

*M/_ to smoke. 

ftu/L^up , __ knj/i> vegetables. 

M>*f *{ asparagus. 

inJfk, spinage. 

lfu*qu,Jgt cabbage. 



i^muu»^i_ potato. 

r~ii radish. 

^qusp lettuce. 

$Mtqg$*»% salad. 

^ p utX^ cucumber. 

^..uS pumpkin. 

«»t» onion. 

s*qss*Migkq_ parsle}'. 

J»«»K cress. 

sssn.nM.mjtn clover, £»»«» grass. 



3. Yp«»-tr j.*. *vr«»-£|rf • Trees and fruits. 



k\sssss, tree. 
p—.$ shrub. 

sums/sum rOOt. 

***% or fouA (*ussu-/s) trunk. 
*fi*-q_ branch. 

nssm twig. 
rnkmlrs. leaf. 
sfsssysn WOOd. 

\usij]bfs or A*«2_ — oa k. 
/usssffissst^m acorn. 
sfw^sA or w*trl> beech. 
P~l± % b fig-tree. 

P" U, L fig- 
sssss^splrH plum-tree. 

st ftp- Or susnnsXIi vine. 

A* Mr# Zf *l grape. 



*fi"jrf pine. 
*2*t/fe fir-tree. 
jjfsMsmtMsuf birch. 
^ts/qtuj^t/u poplar. 
p-Jpt lime-tree. 
,, Ln .h%fi willow. 
fu%&n(,y.m apple -tree. 
9jtrn.usi.yit cherry-tree. 
ftk'Ul. walnut. 
njb^ns.sf^n walnut-tree. 
Z u,n.ufoui\y i l chestnut -tree. 
fuus^usp^ currant. 
fnu^utqusp^ gooseberry. 
«*»M-H raspberry - shrub. 
*i>?4 strawberry. 
n.k*iQ\t peach -tree. 



4. 2-r*"r~ x JHf Quadrupeds. 
fSr%*f.*ssbji t tst%ss»ssnt% animal. 
mXtmssAsfs domestic. 
i£ horse. 

fjf^H, *«uH mare. 
Js\t V nu\ fiUyj colt. 

^ t ox. 
s-s. L bull. 



'tft«- squirrel . 

Lussntts. Cat. 

$«»p- calf. 
^««a dog. 
^««.//^ beaver. 
J*»p- skin. 
#«■■££ leather. 



1 The names of trees and bushes are derived by suffixing 
\ or l-H to the word indicating their fruit, as: 

tyjM»lr apricot, ty/M»ty apricot-fcwj snm%l\x\ pear-free. 



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107 



l(—l_ cow. 


tuLtuutuff, k;_ donkey, ass. 


^ltt L F horse. 


tujk goat. 


%ffi'if f fafituq^ wild-boar. 


nljutup sheep. 


y^ii stag. 


f"l/ ram. 


kqgiff"- deer. 


u-u*n-uni.if lamb. 


%$uuauiuiniut[ hare. 


piLfttf. wool. 


tCuii^iuff rabbit. 


A"'*. P^ 


faw-rt mole. 


tunnuk- fOX. 


J»*-t mouse. 


t"fJL "Wolf. 


F nu F- n [_1 tun.u^u$ Tftt. 


«7»£ bear. 


pnpkifi hyena. 


i'»»fH ape, monkej'. 


#I»L elephant. 


tun.fi L& lion. 


nuqur camel. 


ftitktun-jit.hr leopard. 


jm[$uq^ panther. 


*l»if-c tiger. 


5. fa*«*.£'- 


U* r . Birds. 


p-y*. wing. 


iftujututn-jtlf hedge-sparrow. 


if,butm-[i feather. 


fuu/jutfiup finch. 


!t«,nug beak, bill. 


yif m p,n%[tif gold-finch. 


Plfia nest. 


tf.htfltu%jttf canary-bird. 


Su.t.tyPt A»i- egg. 


\tu V Jfttuftuu^ robin-redbreast. 


<J^t. hen. 


Jknptuhnt.br (oi* t nn l"Wf) 


tuguantutfj tug fn ft COCk. 


humming-bird. 


pwf. duck. 


tn^qnt.fy sparrow. 


ttiutf. goose. 


&f,blrn-%ui% swallow. 


^us^ft.uff poultry-yard. 


f f •»«. cuckoo. 


utyiuiiifi pigeon. 


tuitb-tn jay. tfutjtttnttiif magpie. 


tyuifiiuty swan. 


lfnt.n-tuf. raven. 


^vt^dbh p-*-!?**' singing- 


ftnt. owl. 


bird. 


uftfttttJutfiif. peacock. 


fttfiiuJ2uftif.li quail. 


aStuuhtuu pheasant. 


uMftuttyut lark. 


\tugtut. partridge. 


uttifiif.[ilf thrush. 


tuptuft snipe. 


unfutulf f pnt.fpni.f_ nightingale. 


•unuMn.ftf_ stork. 


,u%u.t L vulture. 


p-n*.p-tutf parrot. 


wph^fiL. eagle. 


fsuttfk falcon. 


Ifuttjmft wood-cock. 


fvyftuj" ostrich. 


6. AHt-f "ir- u hr# 4£r* 


t(-r . Fishes, reptiles and insects. 


Ifkw whale. 


uttun-bftt herring. 


p-y$ scale. 


fnuutft salmon. 



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108 



Appendix. 



2u»%$u&M-t[ shark. 
lm-i(l^ e stock-fish. 
h-usb-uA carp. 
f.«3/iufjff«.f pike. 
—it*? sardine. 
ut.tt.LtA net. 
k u$ i'P' fishing-hook. 

Inuti npuu»i_ to fish. 

ifittpu fisherman. 
l\ittt F ut,t.p[it.% fishing. 
/u&ijrfu*H- crab. 
ttttutfk oyster. 
iltttfp-tulttt.il cray-fish. 
krb-u {jg«" n *igl') tortoise. 
M"u (*•»/»«.) turtle. 
J»lku lizard. 
•* serpent. fr± snake. 
-Ft worm. 
ibptutT silk-worm. 



^utpjjtutjuuytu trout. 
oituint.ii eel. 

Jmutuypu Silk. 

«£2!M' ant. 
uutfu. spider. 
uuutuyu (uutpt^f^ web. 
ri*«y ##<.*■_ chafer. 
PfPmup caterpillar. 
pfipLoAH butterfly. 
t°i°z. toad. 

a-apuw frog. 

utapat-f leech. 
JhqnL. bee. 
•&1P honey. 

Jm-qpusJittT WaX. 

tftkput^ hive. 
mfthu*^ wasp. 
Jusputju grasshopper. 
f^tuJknnt. hornet. 



7. 



<J»*A soul. 
<#«^ mind, spirit. 
JutfJfu body. 
JJtu (jutpJjfk) flesh. 
J»eP skin, 
^/^t, blood. 
irputii vein. 
tif-fr* head. 
f»«y eyelid. 
P'H'rPbL. eyelashes. 
^fP nose. 
^uutnuthitig smell. 
«s/«» cheek. 
u*futu£ ear. 
{tkpu/u mouth. 

u*Ln.uy , ututuiifu tOOth. 

zf out. tongue. 
h%out chin. 
Jopn^ beard. 
b-bnpt throat. 



ir-rr* Man. 

Jutnj $tp hair. 
ifutfutu, forehead. 
«.fit/«ta-fi± features. 
?£<£?# *r*" fece. 

aa.uyuspuA SOUSO. 

m ts e y e - 

u.u/»h-utfutit organ. 
«/°V ©y©brows. 
««£ M**4£ right hand. 
lutfu iktug left hand. 
«/2tf«t finger. 



wnnLita. 



nail. 



^4/m thigh. 
rp-utJutu, thumb. 
buLufi knee. 

uput.ua. leg. 

fut-jf calf of the leg. 
«"i£ foot, ""iffr Jtuut toe. 
fo»»«-f heel. 
««fr or Mufugt bone. 



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Selection of useful words. 

t[f>q_t mtupmittta , jCfim neck. 

»«.•» shoulder. 

}^'«} back. 

fnt./f^ breast. /«*£ chest, 

^*7» belly. 

piujnL.fy arm. 

lbn-^g hand. 



109 



#2_ nerve. 
ji^uAnt^ muscle. 
t ,tn$uJ\gu stomach. 
p-np lungs. 
[bluff, liver. 
b l tftt i mJhtS. t g kidney. 
uftpm heart. 



8. 4,-f-^-^. Clothing. 



Unburn garment. 
^.kplmli tailor. 

tylrjitqmu, tyutiut- cloth. 

faffing cloak, mantle. 
^kpuirfttt. over-coat. 
p+lftng frock-coat. 
fL U ,tfl i n*i,u,ii waistcoat. 
tfinqf/tuuf neck-tie. 
tltuptnfcg drawers. 
u0%if.(iu$t[*ipmfLg trowsers.. 

Z^'lbk shirt. 

y.tyiuifni.ty dress-maker. 
P m lkb %m k pocket-handker- 
chief. 
^ni.^uij stocking. 

pnt-pq- WOOl. 

putJu^ut^ cotton. 

fyivpt tfiupnt-uib- Stitch. 

yitpiu^iui^ garters. 

k°ttk shoe. 
<;»qu,pu*f slippers. 

&bn.%„g f frmp-trnmu gloVC. 

<Lu$>nuQnj<j watch. 

imuttnft J-mJtugnjm clOCk. 

j-tutfiutjnjiflt z/iP-u watch- 
chain. 
^ni/uiiny umbrella. 
$ n fo%m#u.$ parasol. 
f-i-w^ cap. 



pki$tAfe sleeve. 

o&kp collar. 

l»j?<»l button, k"*k^L ^° 

button. 
oq$»![ button-hole. 
uaumuin- lining. 
f-fitytuh pocket. 
^"f shawl. 
2Pgu»Hf.iruu$ gown, dress. 
qmmi.mli petticoat. 
ubqJfiput% stays. 
^.nt^bnu apron. 
<f~u/n(u*i.k% ribbon, 
four/ girdle. 
mmmpmigmi, bracelet. 



qmnti.il 



brooch. 



timukmii necklace. 
f.ffitm 9 oq^ ear-ring. 

qmpq.mit&q_ (Jmqfi) hair pill. 

Jtumm%ft ring. 

fitnmnm[ijf , q.m%q.nt.p Curl. 

faqmitrnQ, fctfo brush. 

fttiqutwmQb-i , tjjtl[t%b[_{,0 bnish. 

ut*%mp t — f^lj comb, to — . 
obmmt$i2_ pomatum. 

ttSumtfn^f tooth-powder. 

umMmt[pXfft, tooth-brush. 
oiCutn- soap. 

Jibn-o £tta.m£tta. fynffg WftSh- 

hand-bAsin. 



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110 



Appendix. 



9 . f^T-lJ+t* The family. 



lutfi&fe ancestors. 

hr%u>i m g parents. 

tttrhr ^utfft, $w*- t ufutuj grand- 
father. 

Ah Jlyp % <J«»ty, -/^•/•grand- 
mother. 

kpbk husband. 

ptf, fri wife. 

u/btr r , \bupuyp father-in-law. 

l^ft—^tj k*"""-f mother-in- 
law. 

t/2u%ttLff t utquy child. 

"Ptb son. 

^.nuuutp daughter. 

p nn . grand-son. 

(™i2ti) P--*- grand-daugh- 
ter. 

ifchuuy son-in-law. 

<J«7»« daughter-in-law. 

l "W u ue brother. 

.g'UP sister. 



ufisirpluB^ t «»Mff.{r brother-in- 
law. 
^b%/» t —"•!__ sister-in-law. 
^uyp father. 
J&vp mother. 
^o/»* Jopbqpuyp uncle. 
$op % Jopivgiyp aunt. 
b'lpopnrtfrt ^^-ttb nephew. 
bqpopuiqfjif , ^kn-tu,^^ niece. 

*°f % *r*irr*nfi I cous i n . 

Jiu^l_ boy. 

""0k &^' 

(% n[ ,) $kuuy bridegroom. 

(%»p) $uipu bride. 
^uspuuXfe wedding. 
utJTti^u'bnup^A marriage. 
uypf, Juspq. widower. 
-urb kb % widow. 
-pp orphan. 
iMsqi^.us^au% relative. 
P$ssptr^uttT friend. 



10. ftt~j« r 

zk\g building. 
tyusjutut palace. 
u*m% house. 
muffle roof. 
llnjibuMjiupti loft, garret. 
uuM%tf.ui.^ stairs. 
^b m % t u Jl u r l l ground-floor. 

u*n.u»fjtia sfUMnfiQtiii Or W'pk 

first-floor. 

^vkvFt f'—bk"*' ° r j ,u ck 

secojid-floor. 
uh%biuii room. 

t Lfi" u 't'UP curtain. 
aytuuiQirp , %tf,up picture. 
^q-uAuaffp portrait. 



»*. Dwelling. 

VbfuiuiSuiriuli bed-room. 
«P-<i drawing-room. 
f»t* door. 

ifru»][u/iq» , fqupuhp lock. 
pui%$M,£ key. 
tuuiu$nu^*u% window. 

muafutntuhuitfiuhr IlOOr. 

lh tl »u% ceiling. 
iyiuutf npiT wall. 
^tuiit^uiii bell. 
tntuuiuiutnuiL mattress. 
pwpl pillow. 
utuL.ui% sheet. 
•lkpju.fr blanket. 
opopng cradle. 



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Selection of useful words. 



Ill 



$**ytr[]* looking-glass. 
tf.u^tfMfwfe furniture. 
^^^4 chest of dra- 
wers. 
tWd drawer 
nbquJit table. 
u*p,,n- chair. 
pmi^uBp-nn. arm-chair. 
p.,u^Jii^ sofa. 
Quiiyfytn carpet. 
w %friqf,% bed. 

1 1 • |v»»C«»A«Mj£, 

iHun-uA, pantry. 
fun^usftuip cook. 
prtLgimQ hearth. 
tffnu^tupiuis fire-place. 
hpb&iy^ chimney. 
ir' u t fi rR » ^"*A»> «£^ smoke. 
tu&m/u coal, tfcfjui wood. 
Jnfuftft ashes. 

tjuyh-uin. f ttt.%bjfi tOngS. 

utwiuutfy pan. 
tniuu^b^ to fry. 

ubqtuhf, 0*f,n-ng table-cloth. 

, U q~sji salt-cellar. 

'1VH k ir /mX pepper-&0#. 

ifiu%n*%bfu mustard. 

tfiu%u*%fiitutfit*t, mustard-pot. 

^gtuwfufu vinegar. 

ikp- oil. 

lti_ bottle. 

upnumff water-bottle. 



ju>/,y.u0i>%nqp% straw-bed. 
yuj^usutrqiuSh night-table. 
tfftu*^. candle. 
^uin.y L to light. 
ui£uiut%utty candlestick. 
>n»r wax-candle. 
fLu$nJiuii,ui_ snuffers. 
m^dkb match. 
iiu.%p-y^ lamp. 
£fy«% stove. 

The kitchen. 
», u $ftnp pitcher. 

tVL pail- 
Z&pif ladle. 
uiiHuit dish. 
lifiutfy plate. . 
q,*»y[,intfi»*i0 soup- tureen. 
uiqffuAmSmi salad-dis/i. 
tt"'L spoon. 

uttuutiun.utputn IOrk. 

q-u/istufy knife. 
tuii&bn-ntj napkin. 
A*Aar cork. 
fug,,*, cork-screw. 
(twtttuff glass. 
t^iuutuf^ cup. 
£u,j,,.. p ~s~\ sugar-famn. 
upjCtu^nAfjC coffee-pot. 
$un.ntiitniufy tea-kettle* 
p-kjwtTu/u tea-pot. 
utf$u^iMtif,ui saucer. 



12. n—»*M+ I— b^it*- Food and drink. 



//Lpuifruf, victuals, meat. 

»Jitt$t.%q. t nLtnbjjig food. 

iu%op-ni-p-[n.% hunger. 
*M*% pfi hungry. 
tnuputL. thirst, — y. 
«f«*-«r meal. 



p,,L r & chops. 
*l%A%f beef. 
$n r p&%f, veal. 
fu,,^/, pork. 

funafi utu^nt.^»ut baCOn. 

kpztk sausage. 



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112 



Appendix. 



% ut fuu**u*2_ breakfast. 
tf««^ dinner. 
t^Prhp supper. 
<?««# bread. £»*-/» water. 
p-mpjr $u,# new bread. 
<»/?*{ $u. s stale bread. 
Jf" meat. 
usp^i$»%w^ broth. 
^«^»^ i#« boiled-meat. 

p-uA, <«if<iY SOUp. 

««fc»i£^74ir sweets. 
Jfrptf fuint-q^ fruit. 
^$$»putf. butter. 
Jiu^n^% clotted milk. 
tyuA/ip cheese. 
cp^^ifi drink. 
^V wine. 
H-utpklnt-p beer. 



^4 1 »/>" game. 
^u,i.kqi% poultry. 
i««-^ fish. 
lai.$MM^bq_ omelet. 
f iu/biu tp lrqk% vegetables. 
^tfp, i« t egg. 
$lr r J^iC vermicelli. 
iss»^ua%t^kf dessert. 
iijquiQn*.%ii- f jputguip cake. 
±-l_ pastry. 
l^pJoq^ punch. 
j,Jm%lnu P lemonade. 
miH.pj*, fa^MMi*, chocolate. 
4>»p- milk. 
"*t cream. 
unuprt coffee. 
p-hj tea. 

um.^ j£ wm-%*l to take 
coffee. 



13. *~r-t«f. Time. 



kqu&ml[ season. 

^.uspnt% spring. 

utjutm. summer. 

«»£fft.fe autumn. 

lAm. winter. 

—t[> year. 

qy a utJfu half-year. 

utjfcu month. 

^ft^p-t kop%ki*4 week. 

^/t«^ J£ «««.*»£ a week ago. 

*r day. bk"o P noon, mid-day. 



M4»*b evening. 

"VZff'LW morning-twilight. 

4£pl™l-j u evening-twilight. 

^mkukm L ©/»£ the following. 

day. 
j- u,f hour. 

ffr* J-u,f half an hour. 
j,u*m.a t q. j-uiS quarter of an 

hour. 
£u Ur t ( lru.'b minute. 
kpf^uyrfkuA second. 



\iu,qufi.^ % %-p $u. r fi New A«""M Easter 

year's day. 
r>u, e ki i k% tt u.% Carnival. 
IP**- *)«•<<>£ Lent. 
\F U iq4us f u. n Palm-Sunday. 



t,u»jfLu tv l„t_J % Ascension- 
Day. 
\jAM*.%q. Christmas. 
^mpk^mfl anniversary. 



1 The names of the months and days are given in the 
20 th lesson. 



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113 



14. Ore The weather. 



<w£ wind. 
JfrH storm. 
tuhiftirt. rain. 
&[,. ,»&,»% rain-bow. 
««#Y cloud. 
npnmnt.tr thunder. 
frnjiiutl lightning. 
tntup t — M.p-frt.% heat. 

tjnt.pui COld. 

f»itinbfitiunJrini.p-fit5s tempera- 

ture. 
prnJlnitutft thermometer. 
tunm/tiCinft degree. 



irntrtutT frOSt. 

n tun. ice. 

<*/«.*' snow. 

iftAj, ^luinf,^ snow-flake. 

AfnJiitutf.ttLhut snow-ball. 

ntu$iuifiyl[ t n^^l skates. 

l^li^'L to skate. 

fLnufpfin sled. 

ff,u n^num hail. 

'%+> •$?*-& fog, mist. 

mun^ttu^iu^ thaW. 
gonbnfrwtT hoar-frOSt. 



15. ii r Jl-*-[i^X . Instruction. 



c t ,,,,ni, l nn»p lt ,% university. 

f!iuiiin[non»i.p-fn% lecture. 

nLitnLgfe professor, teacher. 

nt.niufinn^ stlldent. 
nt.ttnL.3fi tun tuli College. 

t"iv n d school. 

ni^tu^lrnin pupil. 

$ r ,..$,t/i, a exercise. 
n.tuu t ^tutHun lesson. 
p^iunt^tliu%nt.pjtCii transla- 
tion. 
pu*n-tuniuu dictionary. 
m gtrpu»^uAint.p-^t!u grammar. 

outfit; uttufumtulf slate. 

^utnk trfJL slate-pencil. 
ifiumfiin pencil. 
t/tnututiutyiu£ pencil-case. 
*rti u k'"L pen-holder. 
n-ntumuajuutuiii black-board. 
f r » L f,tC chalk. 
niant-%a- sponge. 
p &(,[&, n%,u L port-folio. 
^gtuuut^ ruler. 

Elementary Armenian Grammar. 



it, 2^1 tupping n jtj map. 
tuiuintC£% t opfflituh COpV. 
onfrwtflri^ tO COpy. 
utfrsnn.utf COpy-book. 
a-ftiutnfrtnn Writing-book. 

ttp writing. 
Jlr[uiu 9 p-us'fiiup ink. 

fntnu, tuft I £ n J Lg | ;an( J > 

Itr tuft i tip tu tluitt I 

tvbt. pen. 

pnt-nfr paper. 

&&nt-% p-nt.np blotting-pa- 

per. 
«JI*lb penknife. 
iitutfitify letter. 

inntfu t utntfiiiulf note, ticket. 

%iuJiulftup-nt.np^ note-paper. 
^tuugk address. 
luiu^tuniuit envelope. 
ffl'fip seal. 
ifi. % piu%2b»»c wafer. 
pipuit/ntr sealing-wax. 

p-nP-iuif-nn^tT stamp. 



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114 Appendix. 

16. n r »*.(.-^-.^~ r xt P . Artisans. 

^.kfXmli tailor. t-uMpppt, lock-smith. 

\o^u»^wf shoemaker. npu%usn.f*p bricklayer. 

ilsujCuiM.utffuA merchant. ^uJuspusp book-binder. 

^putijuitfiutt- bookseller. utpm-h'uutuif.k— artist. 

—•1-tpfrl_ printer. M"rA*L painter. 

uwfofa barber. ^pu*p nj j- surgeon. 

%utnusti&$*»^uph- joiner. u*u$ui$&uip»yj- dentist. 

$£«." carpenter. u^^ul^^ph^ coppersmith. 

^*t«/»^ baker. iifrupu fisher. 

Jlus^uiiCwm. butcher. e*M physician. 

^uJly^^ufu money-changer. fc«/i_*»««»^ sailor. 

j-u.Jwi.uphr watchmaker. nu k k tbL goldsmith. 

^usn-usususii coachman. Jpa.usi[u»i£usH- green-grocer. 

fuinuayusMu miller. %u^uipiu»fui'£u»M- grocer. 

p-ilfJusu'uM^mu. stationer. u&, l u t %ua.up banker. 



II. Synopsis of the Declensions of Ancient 
Armenian Nouns. 

As the student of modern Armenian will often 
meet in books with forms of nouns derived from the 
ancient declensions, it has been thought advisable to 
append here a synoptical table of the declensions of 
ancient nouns. 

There are twelve regular declensions. 

First Declension. 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. h«a word. fwfc* words. 

Gen., Dat. fWb£. p"**^. 

Ace. ifwfc.i Tp>,u%«. 

Abl. f » fwH- I p-^h- 

Inst. |wty-. piu%l-+. 



1 s^ followed by a consonant is pronounced ex* Dut m 
case the noun begins with a vowel, it forms no separate syl- 
lable. 

8 In nouns beginning with a vowel 1» is substituted by 6- 



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Synopsis of the Declensions of Ancient Armen. Nouns. 115 

Second Declension. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. ^Lfquig city. 4l«»uhp+ % cities. 

Gen., Dat. ^-»iy»pi* ^—q^ip—^. 

Ace. i£u»iu*g. i^tuifuig*.* 

Abl. i ^""pipl" I 4^""n'if m *f 

InSt. *£*—l«»e~- • +£uiyitq»0+. 

Third Declension. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. d*-"** hour. d*""K hours. 

Gen., Dat. <jw«t/i~. &u,Jl- 9 . 

AcC. i$+ufT. ifruit/-. 

Abl. f «h««/t. f fr-A-v 

Inst, friuifc-. d+uttfiK-i. 

Fourth Declension. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. q^«i river. <\*bu,+ rivers. 

Gen., Dat. t*m-j. <h*""»:f 

ACC. •#»*«». ^Jt**-. 

Abl. £ «h*«"v f ^-t-j. 

InSt. <\*buim^. <\*&Utmfe. 

Fifth Declension. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. hlfiqtst church. hk^i^sh churches. 

Gen., Dat. bf*?*9*-v b$*2*yt— $• 

Ace. ifri&q&gp. iM*i*#A»* 

Abl. jbt*q*3—y jb$*?*#l— •> • 

Inst, bf*ff£l>«» -• bf*7*jt^ 



1 When the formative •£ is preceded by f-» I and *. an 
unaccented euphonic t is inserted in the pronunciation, as: 
-»fj nation, ««^f# (= «#^ c ^) nations; ^«A«4 army, fWiu»f* 
(= pc^u,^) aimies; .|>'»?«v» city, #-i*>#* (= I'-'fn&iO cities. 

* In case the formative U is preceded by any of the con- 
sonants, an unaccented euphonic t is inserted in the pronun- 
ciation, as: *fkm river, ifhmm (= p^qbui L u) rivers (Ace). 

6" 



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116 Appendix. 

Sixth Declension. 
Singular. Plural 

Nom. ty'tfr {fripap) little (one). ♦'*£—** little (ones). 
Gen., Dat. $>«£—. 4>^-- *j. 

ACC. l&'lgP' l£ilgm-\». 

Abl. J $>«£— t (== f'tflk)' i ♦*8^"* *:>• 

Inst. 4>^—. 4>«£— «*}**• 

Seventh Declension. 

Singular. Plural. 
Nom. ^#& (= <l«£fc) foundation. A^- 1 * foundations. 

Gen., Dat. 4^- ;K- 1 ?- 

Ace. ^41. ^-/i-X-. 

Abl. f A^H- J 4^V 

Inst. AM^f • A^'p*. 

Eighth Declension. 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. «!•«"** (=* . • •£>') lamb. «|.i**4 x * lambs. 
Gen., Dat. »i^#«.^. <|.a,«.~x.,. 

ACC. ifrutnl*. i^ui^JX*. 

Abl. £ «b«.«.~H. J «|— .«Aj. 

Inst. «|.«««.— £• <!•«»«.— >f+ . 

^Tiwtt Declension. 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. p>u,p n i.pfiL% goodness. fnupnip-fubt (goodnesses). 

Gen., Dat. r>u.p U t.p-±m\ . ^^mi.^t'-.Xj, . 

Ace. x^u»fn»i.p-^L% . * t p>,up,$i.pfri.%-. 

Abl. £ Hu7.m_pi.it. . J f> u , i ,..i.p-lJi v . 

Inst. f>-p—-p-l>~S£. f>wpaL.p-^~ff.+ . 

Tenth Declension. 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. n«fo» (— • •••/!!») bone. n^tr* bones. 

Gen., Dat. n»^r- n^r? or iHh"-:>* 

Ace. tfHsr* ifMl-r-- 

Abl. jfHM-* jlHta or jd»bh m *- 

Inst, rHhrP' iMlrP* or iHtr"* 



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Irregular Declensions. 



117 



Eleventh and Twelfth Declensions. 

Proper nouns 
of men. of women. 

Singular. 



Nom. U^'««^ Adam. 
Gen., Dat. u^ify. 
Ace. tlW""^ 
Abl. j\\f»'K-j. 
Inst. U7..WI-. 



Wpt^%k Armineh. 



Irregular Declensions. 

First Declension. 
Singular. 

Nom. U«//» man. 

Gen., Dat. u«-fc (= «/«yifc). 

Ace. ija,//*. 

Abl. jll«>'£. 
Inst. U/"*"^- 



Plural. 
Wpp men. 



Second Declension. 



Singular. 



Plural 



Nom. i'Y/r father. 


4**7^ fathers. 


Gen., Dat. 4«y 


4"w 


Ace. «l4'w 


i£ •"/"'• 


Abl. f 4°/*- 


f 4"w 


Inst. 4"77«* 


^wpup. 



Third Declension. 
Singtdar. Plural. 



Nom. *£«//» sister. 
Gen., Dat. .££«-. 
Ace. v£w 
Abl. f **«.*. 
Inst. <£tr r p. 



^»np sisters. 



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118 Appendix. 

Fourth Declension. 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. m>% woman. ^mfrmy^ women. 

Gen., Dat. M*-£- i|~%~Vy. 

ACC. tM^- t£m.%~jm. 

Abl. I MWfc. i U~l~is 

Inst. *«&««£. it*%~jfe. 

Fiftii Declension. 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. I'ht village. ^h'-i^ villages. 

Gen., Dat. ^qt- chits' 

Ace. tJ^f &/'*-q?' 

Abl. f ^^- i +hitd- 

InSt. 1*/l*-qfi<-. ^.f,uq^Lg. 

Sixth Declension. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Op day. U*-**/^ days. 

Gen., Dat. u«-««-/». U«-««-/v 

Ace. iJ)/»« ilV-*"-/*'" 

Abl. jO/*- jU"»w 

Inst. u«.#f*.^t . u > <-*"-/7*^? . 

Seventh Declension. 

Singular. Plural. 
Nom. 8^«- (= -H_) day(-time). Sh# day(-time)s. 

Gen., Dat. S" t -c it £biu% . s» t -a^^ UJ% ^ - 

Ace. ^*.. i£l«-»- 

Abl. t ^fr^' J 8»*-&& t »%3. 

Inst. %*L£?l>llru,Jp . s—-&£ if U iJflg. 

Eighth Declension. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. ii/i**.*^^ Oriental. ^p^^it'v^ Orientals 
Gen., Dat. Qj»**.A£. v . m Le tt.ir i t*yg . 

ACC. iSlpbLbibuy. TJXpLt-Jr/Luyu . 

Abl. jUff**-*/t.«/. j\X r ti.ir l iriuj^ . 

Inst. iv^^""-« IV^^/f^' 



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Phrases for Armenian Conversation. 119 

III. Phrases for Armenian Conversation. 

1. 

Salutations. 

On meeting in the morning, fioy/l L uj„ , Good morn- 
ing, the answer to which is i\««««.*-«f ^u V ffi, % The bless- 
ing of God. 

In the middle of the day, p>u*pbu kb^. The answer 
is the same as above. 

On meeting in the evening, H«7^ fi r ^»i.% t Good 
evening. Reply as above. 

At parting, the person who leaves says, fT^"ig /»"- 
/»«£, Good by, Farewell. Answer, ft«yr£a»f. or hpp-"ig /*•"/"»£• 

On separating in the evening, *hfo_fy /m«/»^< Good 
night. Answer, ^%_ or <**^ LV P'tI 1 or Sty £*'7- * h l_- 

Returning after an absence one is greeted with 
fW/>^ blfiup or ^t"if f Welcome. Reply, fr"*rfi u,k ulu %p. 

Give my compliments ... is expressed by 6«7»f- w fy'- 
%L r $.... t or p.#«/tfr«- cjpH or pp£p"> The person who is 
to convey them assumes the responsibility by saying 
l/f""-" fay t and acquits himself of it, when he meets 
the person to whom the greetings are sent, by saying, 
...kb^fLiUfb,. iffik or »«ty, to which the other replies 
C%it(t$"'i"'i_ LJ* f Thanks, or h>r4 n q_ pty n qa n-— ""wfi or 

nnf_ bhr%iuj . 

At the beginning of the new year, £*"»/»$ w *--p *'"/» 
,niu r f, f A happy new year. Answer, u*""^^ ^- ->»»~ 

ntfttbnnu ^untai$b t Or (\t/Mlr tntunft atunnJ ^uii/irAp • 

At OhriStmaS, "£%»np^tuunfi hr%nubt^. , Or *fiffiuutn h%tut. 
bu juijinitbijiut.. AnSWer, 0/ , ^^ r ^°*/_ ^ h^int&ifit *fl(ifiautnufi . 

At Easter and for forty days after, *fy/««#»»" j«^««. 
/, Mrn-bgng, Christ is risen from tJw dead. Answer, Op$~ 
%h,u L k jH>p»i.pfii%% f^«/n»»»/, Blessed be the resurrection 
of Christ. 

2. 

K°fc^ «£_%^. What have you? 

^fipg «£ «*.ty«r. I have a book. 

fir ttapa —^hg* What book have you? 

Hhp tfrflpc. n^'frf* I have your book. 

trftu nL*bf? u . Hast thou my pen? 



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120 



Appendix. 



fl/* trim ut &b u * 

*ftut%p ifusmhtn $$i%hp . 

\fptjiti. Juauwhut nt%hiP» 
fl^/ n.*u%utL Jju i$t%k. 

^I'ftlf*** fyuspJjifi Xjt tip i»t.%h . 
\ffhn Liu iP £"/"' auinhhuttT »l«. 

U*/"! ^««w ^^^ ^' 
\\u»pta*i£ Ifuuuljjj* • 

11*/ ?• 'b'l&cbk ""n"^ "*£_ ^"'s 

friuutuhufu ^—u HLUbnuft. • 
U*£o- tttnitn Jtt at-%£u • 
^uA*pp% iu£_ f'lFfy 6« 
UL^Cr^ £^*^* f-UM%trp n$uju, 
\\u»p- f n *.ugp. 

hpt S-tihgt #bt_ ■£ «»«^^ 
nY H^ ♦'-me** 



No, I have not th}' pen. 
What pen hast thou? 
I have my pen. 
Is it not mine? 
No, it is not thine. 
How many pencils have 

you? 
I have two pencils. 
Who has a knife? 
My brother has a sharp 

knife. 
What has thy father. 
He has a red horse. 
How many friends have 

you? 
I have three or four friends. 



3. 









Have you any bread? 
Yes, I have a piece of bread. 
Is the bread good? 
Yes, it is very good. 
Have you also some butter? 
No, I have no butter. 
Will you have some butter? 
If you please. 
Has that little boy also 

any bread? 
No, he has none. 
Has he had bread enough? 
He had a large piece. 
Is the cheese also good. 
I do not find it good. 
Will you have some milk? 
Give me some, if you please. 

Who wants some milk? 
The children want some 

milk. 
Have you any wine? 
Yes, I have some. 



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Phrases for Armenian Conversation. 121 

1»**^_ inb.n.tff nfrf, « L ^, What kind of wine have 

you? 
p.£ l i ,u r ifl v hu pg rthpJiulf We have both red and 

f/fc/i >ii3iPig. white wine. 

^mrfiulf Jj, ^p,^ (V.^^. AVill you have a bottle of 

wine? 
l\'t-t i^iT »t-jb(i. No, I will not. 

<\*p,p, iuyk% fe ^m%l*p. Do you find the wine good? 

\u[,nut ufgQ £. It is not very good. 

<\*,„ L ,„p *'/> £_»^r (fn^uiufp ft,*. Will you give me a glass 

of water? 
U<J,#/ ^maup- Jfe i^4_h^V 9 Here is a glass of fresh 

water. 

4. 

h**'L h"V" % 3"'-8ke • What have you lost? 

^utnlfu f{„p„%g nL 0f, . I have lost my purse. 

tt" t L'P" A Jfc i»r"\t nt &' Who has lost anything? 

[-*,„(, b ty,, j;, p,„% jj, t r ,p,,%y,„ #. My friend has lost some- 
thing. 

b***L t»r"*'&"L#- What has he lost? 

1%/f t n., t n,,,'i,f. t h faphtyni-jy. He has lost his ring? 

AY. Jiuu9,u%$ Jp 7 .mmc. Who has found a ring? 

Uj" t b">pvbk ""H"** «/"""«"V' "£ This little boy found a 
Mf-mtuu . ring. 

U> &h K p .HuinuAfi £. Is that your ring? 

\Xj» f frf Jt»uiu,%fi» k> Yes, that is my ring. 

^ n t[u$%n 9 » uihuiJ 3 ^ k^» Have you seen my um- 

brella? 

l\'t_, pmjg ibp $,,t/i»injnjfc No, but I have seen your 
uibuuitr hJ*. parasol. 

b°*'i_ t^'^akp- What have you bought? 

4tti. *z, p—-iP t^^sh I have bought some paper. 

y%^ Ulh, " uf i p—-i& t^'^skf What sort of paper have 

you bought? 

\ % ,n,nuf it upn Lrj p t^'^&f" I have bought some letter 

paper. 

(\ r t?i. ^u,Jiup ^b 9 f, v ii-j%. For whom have you bought 

it? 

lfo/f« ^mJiup fblfffi i»»ji'* I have bought it for my 

mother. 



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122 



Appendix. 



ft/""- O-tufukgfy* Ahp tnnt%£> 



qu$fh 



^ op bnpopu utn l%ji o- utpt bgji . 



Have you sold your horse? 

Yes, I have sold it. 

To whom have you sold 
your house? 

\pkp tnAbj.. *\*ln. to-ut/uWiy* Our house? We have not 

yet sold it. 

"What have you sold then ? 

I have sold my uncle's 
house. 

Have you received a letter ? 

Yes, I have received a 
letter. 

From whom have you re- 
ceived the letter? 

I have received it from my 
niece. 

5. 

IXjuop tntruufe ibp piupkfruJp. Did you see your friend 

to-day? 






\\pJk* uutustfui^t liusiluife. 



fluty/? J-uitfisignjg JJfii k • 



No, I did not see him to- 
day. 
Did you see him yesterday ? 
Yes, I saw him yesterday. 
Who saw Edward's watch? 

I did not see it. 
Is it a gold watch? 



\\'l> '»e±'«p J -'»* n »&*ua '£*' £ • No, it is a silver watch. 
fr—Jtugujgfc LiP tu j J i^ ,u l Has he also a watch chain? 

Hj/,, uutf uiPwj Jfc «i.%f*. Yes, he has a gold chain. 



6. 

Are you hungry? 
Yes, I am hungry. 
Are you thirsty? 
Yes, we are thirsty. 
\iptui-ni3tg u*.%ffe p-k ufofcpw*. Are you right or wrong? 

**• 

IpH^ fam f. P u*i.,,u%£ ,i*&f,%g . We are always right. 



\j*wpuft- kg. 



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Phrases for Armenian Conversation. 



123 



nY. —i/ft"**- £/»• Who was wrong? 

Wiuitf&putf, ui%fo,*i. kp* The pupil was wrong. 

SvfPtL «* to PF ** Pk *-—r«"- • Are the children hungry 

or thirsty? 
\\%,,ip p-k M%op[> h% pH They are both hungry and 

&,u C usu . thirsty. 

S.utftttLfi'r, piu % Jp tihfuhr fir*%. Have they not eaten any- 
thing yet? 
They have eaten a small 

bit of bread. 
Who has eaten my apple? 
Alice has eaten it. 



\\miiftjt Jp $"*g t^bpiub- b% 



htli Anna , 
FA- 



7. 



Do you know this gentle- 
man? 

No, I do not know him. 

Who is he? 

He is a foreigner. 

Is he an Armenian or a 
Greek? 

He is neither Armenian nor 
Greek; he is an Italian. 

Does he speak Armenian? 



\\n T^uA^huFn »»»§'' upupnhp . 
Qtnuinutfiiii'b api$ £. 

4"& * p-t-Gy*" 

lWf» u^ ^iuj k f »L 67/*' • 

\ktnuMiiunh tffib U • 
Z,"yb pk^' typ faouJP. 

Wj», £*»*. $iujh P lfr fe farf. Yes, he speaks Armenian 

well. 

U>^A r $% ,u L fa faoufr. Does he also speak Eng- 
lish? 

*£fe Jp fa /uonf, . He speaks a little. 

Orf">rr » f»u tu , l kpk'i' fc <w«#~ Do you understand Italian, 

%uTp. Miss? 

U j" t e—jd Juoub^t. jw£niz*u~ Yes, but I have not the 

tfn^p/n.'hp i^Aifrf. facility of speaking it. 

^m-ppbpk'i* fa »*»[p[q> J-f Are you learning Turkish? 

U«/"> inifl* km u »'[pI iJ% It* Yes, I am learning it. 

8. 

\Xjuop p%t *• What day is to-day? 

Wj«op hr l r^i^>FPt* £• To-day is Monday. 

Upnisp b% ^ffLuif/ Jfuu o* Which are the other days 



pbpp< 



of the week? 



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124 



Appendix. 



\f*pp J-iutitu%ka yOX ^utuiuuj 
Jibp ^opknpopnpn.h'u • 

Wi'fity*" tuliQbu»l__ f\t-pputjtJ- tfiu* 
iTutktrn • 

zrePh 

Wjuott uti/una.% outuplt £ • 

H^uofl utu*u%kt-Jktjit £ • 
\tpkh uwuau%kt-^uptip^ £&p • 



Tuesday , Wednesday , 
Thursday, Friday, Sa- 
turday and Sunday. 

When did your cousin ar- 
rive ? 

He arrived last Friday. 

When will he go away? 
Next Tuesday. 

What day of the month is 

it to-day? 
To-day it is the sixteenth. 
Was it not the fourteenth 

yesterday? 
I t> e g your pardon, it was 

the fifteenth. 



"£%iip^iMiList£ ir$P t ptAum tint. 

jfUUMQUMJ . 

{Cptt ut t 4£ Uu, a u ip* 

1»»* # /» tfpfutth bit _pji tuts tut* • 
\^i»t/npuiptttp nt-fif-p tfttttf* bit 

oit $Mt% ttt it* 
\f'lP"UPt klL •tfi' u 'uutj utut^utt-ji% • 

\\tuph-htT btuih- 4* 
frutifp t guthf?ft% ^ '£//£/» • 

ki. im/ittn-p J-ittJp Jb-uh'lt • 

l| "*-'[}%£* ^kutu %ut^uuttCtttybt . 

"£uttn tuifbjiu If p , tupq.l/u %$u*, 
ptutjfkutjtuhr btT* 



How did you sleep last 

night? 
Thank you, I slept very 

well. 
How long did you sleep? 
I slept seven hours. 
How long do you sleep? 
I usually sleep eight hours. 

Is your brother still sleep- 
ing? 

I believe that he is up. 

At what o'clock do you 
get up? 

I get up at seven o'clock 
in winter; and at six 
o'clock in summer. 

Will you breakfast with 
. me? 

You are very kind ; I have 
already breakfasted. 



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Phrases for Armenian Conversation. 



125 



10. 



Opbpn ifpp lutflfiitubpfiiujii bu • 
Wi/iiin^p t Qnt-ubii iuifii ttt-tuh uhf* 

\\°pn h uiuipiit-tuii iutlh%iubpt[iuji» 

Qnt.%ftii g>tnii%bpt[tii.np • 
Qjhn.nt.iuii opbpp p %£tu£u b% • 
\\iuplf it'll • 

\*iiff *fl*l^P^'^Pll /^'£'Y^** ^' * 

\uhtiin bpbiuiu b% • 

$iiipnt.tun u%2_ tpufi'P* fdfiu ljiuj . 

giupbu uiiuulibpbnu lutlhti ttt.ufi . 
^JuiiluA u%f_ t piu%p > op %"{/• 

)^tfpiiubpt;% mfiulip Ov) op iil*. 
% bu f nt.phjiibp % q\ •/» • <|>^"»"^- 
pnt.iupp ilhiuj% 28 o/f ntSift • 



When are the days longest ? 
In summer, in the month 

of June. 
Which is the longest day 

in the year? 
The 22 nd of June. 
How are the days in winter ? 
They are short. 
And how are the nights? 
They are very long. 
How many months are 

there in a year? 
A year has twelve months. 
How many days are there 

in a month? 
Some months have 30, 

others 31 days ; February 

has only 28. 



11. 



\?l'&i ll^ / 4/A'*'/p^ r H**i'£_ A"""*""- 



a* 



ib« 



\unuutiuniut. hu& "yfl^lj*! it" 

nil nop tiunfp tniuiilipu • 
I 1 /* pttmutiii.i/p lum^un » 

He/''. 

fruiifp inuiutibu bLiuL. Jibn. 

Ztfi?"- J-tuJp muitifihn burnt. . 
|_ ii% in n'li ku" blfinh- uuiifiuli tip 



Ulllt-lUt- 



piA. 



\itutfiutfp » r |. -£•,[, gn^p tfp tutu* 

pnubtuht^p . 
Wj" f bnpbifb fufiuin tyiupbt.iip 

tnt.pbp tin luuipnuuiut^l^p • 
<\*u*nm%[(p tlp% k- 

p_ub L Ibn^. 



What did the Englishman 
promise you yesterday? 

He promised to call upon 
me at ten o'clock to-day. 

Did he keep his promise? 

Yes, he did. 

Was he with you at ten 
o'clock? 

He came punctually at ten 
o'clock. 

What did he want? 

He gave me a letter from 
London. 

Did the letter contain any 
news? 

Yes, it contained some im- 
portant news. 

Is it a secret? 

No, I can tell it to you, it 
you wish it. 



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126 



Appendix. 



12. 






a. tt riiLiiuiu* 






\^tntit.a.At. t ntuuusLusu 

L* tuft Jin truls • 
l^tttfutun^ IfdukfLg • 
J|2_| ^btnu ±ut.%kfl* 
\%%£t?t- ^LuiLpufe ^u$tm 



tt 



U*£ jut 



\tpp utn*.%&* JIttjuhytuj , pl/iut- 
ut%Apkt- fkp tnbqtup . 

^tPblt *%L *un-»»%a $ttt[utit»t,ft 
tntitfutfu k£jtr£nc ±k • 

Quw p-pfnt-tnbr £^» . 

f^ii£tipuu^flit p-pfat-tub- btT. 

ItfltufS $ptM*Jg%b L Ib^ fiS <J«~ 

tltu%itiiu . 
£% a n^tuLtu £tt t. p-kuttif. tt^iutft 

jAtf.tti.1tji if* uu>jb • 
\j*iiistb-tssii£ Lfc tnhu%l£j» • 

iT» ™j»> F % l * ht &abk *• 

f) t.p h% u, 1^iUp_ ♦ 
^tulftt b% . 

\\9ut^bfiut%bftp tft-p b% • 
*\*tufirr£jit tf% • 
tyfrpk *utnttjtm[i b^tuh- £. 

ll*/"! u^uttym Jjt_ ftputhr £. 
\j*utnpubiLn tf-uttstL. • 



Do you feel cold? 

Yes, I feel cold. I tremble 

with cold. 
Where do you come from? 
I come from the concert. 
Why are you so wet? 
I have been made wet by 

the rain. 
Does it rain then? 
Certainly, it rains rather 

fast. 
Had you no umbrella? 
No, I had none with me. 
Why did you not take one 

with you, when you left 

home? 
When I left home, it did 

not rain at all. 
In April one should not go 

out without an umbrella. 
Are you very wet? 
I am wet through and 

through. 
May i offer you my um- 
brella? 
I will accept it with thanks. 

Do you see the rain-bow? 
Ah! yes, how beautiful 

it is! 
Where are the children? 
They are in the yard. 
Where are the pupils? 
They are at school. 
Has Phebe been out for a 

walk? 
Yes, she has taken a walk. 
Who was with her? 
Her aunt was with her. 
Did she find any flowers? 



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Phrases for Armenian Conversation. 



127 



^ttttn ututntLytu 



2 ft/ n-uttut, • 
rtjuft. . 



tip £nt5tb. 



tfpit tuf m 



%kp> 



She found many violets. 
Has she not had a rose? 
Yes, she had a rose too. 



13. 



{^UttUptul^lUUp ^UtUUtL. (Or J~*—*- 

uurtih**n] • 

Wj"f fy^t ^tUUUIt.. 

*{*tu%ip ttttatuutuunp ttt.ii ft • 

\jpttnL. LtutP Antra ^uttn ttt^ip, 

\*ifutu%p tttrtjuttfh- £ . 

<\*bn. Jlrljuiuh- ^k * 

\?pp tufcutfc Jblfhft . 

l^Jf'lC. ivftmf' Jhtfuft . 

frtutfp jt utit ff pi tu/tutfi Jhtflift. 

fruttfp nt-tHtSii . 

thie. V h vP ,u j f-r* 

^•fit-in n-nbtuu ttdtp» 

\ujiutn l^l^gl*^ H-nbtulf tfgt ttt%ft 



Has the stranger arrived? 

Yes, he arrived yesterday. 

How many servants has he? 

He has two or tree. 

Has the prince gone away? 

He has not yet set off. 

When will he leave? 

He will go away to-morrow. 

At what o'clock will he set 
out? 

At 8 o'clock. 

Where is he going? 

He t*5 gotwy into the country. 

Has he a castle in the coun- 
try? 

He has a very beautiful 
castle there. 



14. 



^pbtf-tulfp Jtfh- &. 

\otitiui Jkh- £• hphpl^u ftuu 

tut.htji abb- k\ • 
ljit.it ffc% ttt^ bpt^pl^li tftrb £. 



P)>«l ^ tuuttin.au up , "PHrFP /'•*'*■ 
%k» tuub/ft Jhh k. 

*fLw%[? tntuphfytu % tp, QutJJiift. 

§iuuuanLat. tmupbLtum trtT» 

\*1P"yC1- J*"'* ^ utiitphbittu £ • 

*f*ttts/it tntuphhtuh £» 

1? />/* h^luuh- £ • 

\tfffifytu h%iuh- £ ^tuatttp ttt-jt)- 
^iunht.u troft9-tuututit$t.% bu 
pup QitL%nt.tup tnutuupti • 

n> op. 



Is the sun large? 

It is very large; it is much 

larger than the earth. 
Is the moon also larger 

than the earth? 
On the contrary, the earth 

is larger than the moon. 
How old are you, Joseph? 
I am 12 years old. 
How old is your brother? 
He is 20 years old. 
When was he born? 
He was born on the tenth 

of January 1879. 

On what day? 

On the 26 th of May. 



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128 



Appendix. 



15. 



Q'V usn-iub- £ iILptuutu • 
Qphttpn. \%jfiatu utn-tuOr £ '/'"A 

jyvAlrA n.uitssb- jl; • 

Qtrpfivp ft%&. ifcnfu t^ttt- muut . 



ZiSM7ft0t.it} biuJp • my 



ui^titutun. 



H- 



X^nuq^p putb Jjp bsuntri* 
fl/u/P fyiupbj_ u,u[ptstjt$ig . 



Who has taken my scissors ? 
Miss Eliza has taken them. 
Why has she taken them? 
She has not found her own. 
Will j'ou lend me 3 r ours? 
With pleasure; here they 

are. 
Do you want your thimble? 
Yes, I want it. 
Will you sew anything? 
I will sew some shirts. 
From whom have you learnt 

to sew? 
From a seamstress. 



16. 



(^ttrtttt- yuan ptuii ttultfogf • 
H«/"f pi* l» lilt- 1UIMI ULtuit iti%jfl*n • 

£%£r£itL. asijiipusu ^piu^u/fttx. £'##<-«. 
It or It Ufa tlhytn . 

\\n$hihiiiL. puin-hp uii iu.%ffji . 

|) ut/tc it. At. 1 £c #*£_ «^6 ib uu t- 

Itn'hut h p ^ututfuutt utn.us'Un 

put ix.tr p uinJptrittt, , 
\\Jku op otubU* putn. unJpbm. 

/«»*- kj!' 
Q\tuntun-tubknt;% Luthnn.iF utXh t 

\f pp.tr 3b 15 4^» ouuttt * ftp*. 

p trait gut ututfifc . 



Have you much to do? 

Yes, we have a great deal 
to do. 

Have you always so many 
exercises to do? 

Not always. 

Have you also any words 
to learn? 

Certainly, we can under- 
stand no language with- 
out learning words. 

How many words have you 
to learn every day? 

It depends on circumstan- 
ces. Sometimes 15 to 20, 
sometimes also more. 



17. 

ti'«<.£43? <JA«t« t^utnjut Jp jAb L Will you take a walk with 

<ifiJu*. me now? 

ty, giu^f op Auiaufbuiti £««_.. I am sorry, I have no time 

%^tT $fcJ!u . now. 



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Phrases for Armenian Conversation. 129 

&»zk {bp£ Vf'-'&p $ htnu Will you take a walk with 

iyuttyu, Jp pi*b L . me after dinner? 

Z^iutfni-pir.uJf., i^y^ tunXkin*. Willingly, I shall come for 

mfiuif, ^.uir. you. 

fr,„.q, ^ w %f>/r% ,yf,u,f. tg.i*ip. At what o'clock will you 

come? 

^«'^ 4^0^ •gbl. #/"«& 'i/""fi I shall come a little after 

fu#f/\ six o'clock. 

hc^k n p» A ^* m 'Y u "Z/ m ^ ( or With whom did you take 

ypfcu^ujnt.p-btsSi.) b^up. a walk yesterday? 

^bn_ nc ^i-nj» $bu>. With my nephew. 

^bn^npif-fif. if.bn. ^Jhlfj.hjjn?^ . Has your nephew not yet 

left? 

fl'^_, i»%Miv <J»*» 4 m#«f#« t ^. No, he is still here. 

b>/* ttfwf, Jbfrf,. When will he set out? 

\\%»r Jbifub^t. o/f/i n P n^»u, u ^ The day of his departure 

lk wfrut-p" is not yet fixed. 

hvh"ii % rt'»'Q'»r't»'-Pf 1 '-*' ' r n Will he make a long jour- 

ttftnfi p%i?. n©y? 

W'ttf./f,,, , ti f,u,f,rti4*i/f'„(f^kq>[tit''b~ He will travel in France, 

n,yl> Jk£ l*- uifiu,^ ijbpii^ and will not be back 

if.Mnj*i*y ifyitjbt. brfni- nn/pit . again for two months. 

18. 

Qgp nftutbp pk —-p k <ttn~ Do you not know where 

fuiup^u. my hat is? 

l\'t, £b J* T f.i»b r . No, I do not. 

\}ty,un,»t_»pp u/bnp ##*./» p_iu u ul Does the servant know 

^««r, where it is? 

\\% u»i_ib tfmbp. He does not know either. 

\\uSbfuu*L. $tup 9 »i. s [q> frpb% . Have you asked him al- 

ready? 
Z i i»un.'i,< u ! lu Sb k ««Y«»«»t<>^ ffi- Perhaps the maid-servant 

—k . knows. 

\\u,pb[[, £ „p tfcutk , 4><uiiib •«- It is possible that she does, 

%f»l itu Jiugpbg Zbp ub%biufc . because she has cleaned 

your room. 
z*iu*b 9 k.g k ,u% &L iffyc* Call her, please. 

h°*L hn $r mJ ke* Sfy- What is your pleasure, Sir? 

H%.p ^.puih- k^p fifi'tupta* Where have you put my 

hat? 

Elementary Armenian Grammar. 9 



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130 Appendix. 

l t uM%^.kplufun a p itpusb biT. I have put it in the ward- 
robe. 

to e &% Jt£. In which? 

l\j» ^w € ytt'el»ft'»alh «#£• In this wardrobe. 

Z,f,Jiu $»% ik"\r Ts it no longer there? 

£«#}««.«-/& £t?«yt'gwj $»*> . I have not yet looked there. 

flV 4 pisAa.^. ,?<. r wu.lt Where is the key? Where 
4/? *_"*/*• have you put it? 

<\*s*Jk% ^afuush^ *«r. I have hung it on the 

nail. 

Z,»% 4.u/un<., u ± t±. It is not hanging there. 

^u*r /&(«»&- aiP u l" L £«*#»*#&• Then it must have fallen 

down. 

EL^mmlm*^ . There it lies. 

Aj^ts nL 3^g* k P* km $' u *ke- Pick it up, if you please. 

19. 

fl*i rf 1 ^ (or k tu "'Uu) '"J" Who has built this house? 

o| . XPh&v «**""■*' «ftfc • A certain Mr. Miiller. 

Ufc/lf «« u&lu?Jp fc pifuttfi u*%»p Does he inhabit it him- 

*L* self? 

n'^, us%l,uJp if fAtu^p **%,>(, No, he does not live in it 

Jkf_. himself. 

flV fe t&H't/' »ipbM. Where does he live then? 

fl*-rA2_ *b n m'9 *£ he fi" u hb* He lives in another street. 

IHfAz. "" ,t ^V "*-^» Has he any other hous- 
es? 

Wj»t b vkg —»l1* »*&/>• Yes, he has three houses. 

4«Y,*ft.««i 4* Is he rich? 

Ujfc^*" Ve»M t p»yy tkjr They say so; but I do not 

^utLiutnutp . believe it. 

1y ♦£*£ V m wt ( or "fc£ Is his wife still living? 

D'^, An.u*± £. No, she is dead. 

£uiu,i¥%y Jkn.uih k* Is it long since she died? 

hpkg w*»rt *««.«/£ Mtikiul. . She died three years ago. 

\>*%l_ kp «f«*/t^/» or 4?'"V° What was her age? 

uauinlrbufU 4/» • 

bp£ru»L%ki.*op-£ *nui lt bl i tu'i, fy. She was 37 years of age. 



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Phrases for Armenian Conversation. 

20. 



131 






Did you hear that my 
neighbour has died? 

No, I have not heard of 
it; when did he die? 

He died last night. 

Of what illness did he die? 

He died of the typhoid fever. 

How long was he ill? 



(Or u^$un.Lhnmu\ • 

^S zi"r ,u P ^«-«*t- 'Y'*"*-^ He was ill for six weeks. 






Was he your friend? 



Wj» t iiuwfji' /!i«/f*f*./» £/». Yes, he was my best friend. 
n°«-/» buAop,„g»*p *»%»(, <j^«r. Where did you make his 

acquaintance? 
\\, n „SL t uj[, Jl£ hr,u%op-,» 3 uij ,u^ I made his acquaintance 

%np <JAm. at Adana. 

\\, n ,u%u,j[, J££ 2i nul &wl'op* Have you many acquain- 



l.kn 



^&« 



tances at Adana? 



*£,*.%[, ,r P $u,u, nLS,f.,r. £u,^ I have a few; most are 

mbp£ Jhn.iuh- &% • dead. 

21. 

*l™ic. it" mt "' a '' fr L i nt - T"Qf Will you come to see me 

to-morrow? 
U«/"> tpk J-i»J*uh-b »*.%k~ Yes, if I have time. 

Q,hp ^b%p% ,u L t^inf, ^ t $. Will your sister-in-law 

come too? 
QkiT If.u^bft np ti_,y % puu3 I believe that she will not 
u,%h r ln ttt ,t $bu,„ itfinf, ^iuj . come ; but my brother-in- 

law will come with me, 
^l""t tt'kfpp "U" ifi't t'Pk Would you have bought 
biufitiit. mu*'ia Tt»»fc—j[ig< this horse, if you had 

known that it was to be 
sold? 
li£_» »i/»"fi it % ^b' b % t*fr *>'"* No, I would not have 
^ib if f»r • bought it ; it does not 

please me. 

9* 



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132 



Appendix. 



fypu*%ttirpGii tjtp b iou bc ' 

uait it£p arn£ii Lp jbo«^iT« 



Would you always speak 

Armenian, if you knew 

it? 
I should not always speak 

it, but sometimes. 
Do you not speak French? 
No, Sir, but I speak Tuk- 

ish and English. 



22. 

frtuifiujijyb p uAut itb u "ftuig Do you still want my 

» L %fy wvfaufo. watch-key? 

fl'/-» "UL * L " -it-ip i»m.%/,^ No, I do not want it any 

u$%m P . longer. 

U k tb % E k n P u% d--aSg* Have you lost yours? 

%kJ* fob-p t-%i?i_ i"*/**. I cannot find it. 

X^ja u$quA %„ P k°ltkb -ik»ip Does this boy want new 

--A/P. shoes? 

y^bh ua fUt *%. *"7* h°zbkb He wants a new pair of 

u^huig n*.%b* shoes. 

XtpbVukpz tfiuiufh- b%. Are his worn out? 

Hjw, p.ninp n ^% buifrQwb- (or Yes, they are quite full 

b-ut^hptiJ jlrtjuLlt} k% . of holes. 

(\ri*^*b ^»u^u»u i i uM%,,%j> . How long has he worn 

them? 
hpk nu -"fy" $—+—*- i"Ah\i>* He has worn them two 

months. 
Vr iflru—b —l "i^-ip i"*J'b*' Does he not also want new 

clothes? 
Wj»t u&bk- *"T ^pusp^n^ Yes, he wants a new coat 
J£ iru uiwfLUMuif* j£ mkuig and a pair of trowsers. 
«&b- 



23. 



y^l. p«fcb 4p-u kc ^' / /' < >A^ • 
Tb-i-rvb" ^"u kc b tn r 4 >b J% ' 
l»*ir^_ pufit b'T^bi- k nu uwu u ^t*v 

4|£«f|? h "P VpuiqnutP «£f p%tn~ 



nkS. 



What are you thinking of? 
I am thinking of my future. 
What makes you think of 

your future? 
I must choose a profession. 



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Phrases for Armenian Conversation. 133 

1T£ fa? fuifuqpfi np uy^k* Who desires you to do so? 

Zt-jpu fa» <f,*u<f,,*q,f, . My father does. 

!,{,./;« n pnz! n u % j;, jmA^ufh- l^p . Are you now decided? 

n'^_» 7^"- «/»*£#/?«»fc ifc jut%^ No, I have not yet decid- 

i-tub- i$r$r. ed. 

hP± ft* ^« / t<J»t. / f^ fe <J«7»y- If you ask my advice, I 

*^ , &» /«, r <J«t r7 . }„«. «,•«./* should advise you to be a 

lh^ "/» £»*w«»f««* £it*ug. merchant; for the whole 

# tu0 *"ib '—fp»i£ m ik" m t^c world is open to com- 

P' u & k ^uttkutfLiu^uf%aLp&m% • merce. 

£%, T <;.u4,» L yj* Mr P [unp^n,.^ I thank you for your ad- 

tfo 4»»K»r» vice. 



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III. Reading Exercises. 

A. Prose. 
1. 

l|/lr tip ^utc tip ni3b£pi np uitlb% op ^utt-LMHi tip If ut* 
o-£rft t fruyg kf^tL t n ^ tirl' -*""*£_* ^4" i'f-yjrp °PP A/»^««- 
^utg.LhO' uututltutty nutuufi jufiutn unt-n Lp hutftt^p nuthiiltn t 
f^LUtnji utt-btfc ^utLuftfir niXtirututnu jni-unJ % ututptupba "^utupx 
\}uiLufjh fuutpnt-iruust., ^utcp putut n.ftpgutu &t- utr ^usi-£rftfir 
%uthhg% 

^m^mmpttX . — — Iffis tip A"> niXtfcp t ^utt-p tutihXt op nuiuji 
^utt-^ftfl Ijuibtzpx \\[tun u.n^ t?p utuatit f^U^nt- a.n^ ^tp t Opp 
authft ^UiuljfiP uuiuihuit £'nt-qtrp t \\u&£p ^usulrfift ntlbtruuttnu 
tnt-unti ft^U* pputut QuiQnnirgutt-% fAtinc *jutfntilrgtut-i 



fruaJiuusuLust. tnlsutnugfi nutnutpusiutru* tip fuhq.plrg ^ir*. 
npuutufc Jp nptufcu nji a tun. tip a-pk hptfU ^uttiutp* out nut put*- 
ujlrututputvfiti «/£-? tuutlrUutfuotilr tnu t u <V\utpui[iJ % uuifu TCutjtrt 
Xtrq \lrui) upturn utujttutltlxg %ut , ire utlruu&tP P"k fi"> u /k' u HP 
putbutn Atirp plrputitp n-ftutUtutnu \utiiutp flir b u* utbuutL 
putn&p tip jutptitupfiu utitap% n 

^mmmm^ttX, — %ftutnutntuutirtn tip A tr* / u l t 'H'* r & »**t/'' w 
uuiLIz tipt f) t-p uiittnh ustniruusfitQuirp t ^irnfftiutap ft tr^ ujut- 
tnutujuutlbirg t fiXi/rc ^uttiittp %utfti autp&tnL. £rp utttnp \trut t 
\n%utnu np tfpl^nfi duijputomnuinu fct [tfbLrfrut \/'-p niUu yfi "p 
LnnMt frt 



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Reading Exercises. 135 

3. 

\pnt-putg6utu tip nt-pfip ttnepuinqutuft tip \uAsn.piub[nti 
^utptjnt-tj uthnp . u ft u* bnutt. QntJ^ujuub u% Jbp tiutnbup put*. 
pbyutJp^ % "Wi-utn ) ubpbfftu , tttutinutufuutubg upt-up % S^f- 
Qntf^uAthbv Luifunt-btni. n.utututututptnnt.bnutu ^ uuiLutth %ut of*. 
qu$ why ftp Ifbuibpp putuutfitt u%fJbn.ubtnJt^ 

^—fymf-X. \pnt.puttjLuth tip npnc ^utun.ftufbtjutt-t \% tr£_ 

^utpgni-t] uthnp t Qntftuthu^u fr°u*putufi n.utututufui put nt-tub bpi 
|» u£iu£u ui nut tntrg ftp Lb uthnp t 

4. 

U Qup XhitjOp futtltutqutha uth^uthq fiuut Vppk~ 1V U r % 
puutu fiyptutu tip putututfuou Jh uthXb % np autjp ututbrh ppbh 
J>nif huutut&* utupun.<£utur Lp putnutLputuibp Xbnoft ptupdnetfl. 
ubpnJx U \*po£>t utk-p f*d*% ujutuiutufituthutjf ptuniftutnifrp) ubqut*- 
ufth t£piv/ uyhpuSb fun.unt.utb- bhp np ^btT uftutbp fif-fr f-p 
n%biT Zlrnnut n u f^bphftn. Jputj qf'p r t puutt- frjfnu/bpi 

Z,~[2~f—1»* — — ftifuuth Jjt fTh* uuuil. uth&Jt Jjtx \% u^iuftufr 
uth& Jph kp uthx f\pnub J*nJ uuuttub- kp utht f» lr* If pbl?p 
putnJtutnJtpi \% u* utn.utpLbg utht \% u * P ft tut up bn ftpptuthpt 
\%*u£_ py^i (f'nuakp u/unuft 

5. 

\\Jrp* (=r. uHrputuputn nt.lt tft z=z doctor) U""**-P^% uiu*. 
o-UttP dp bpp Lp outpnqbp \\utpntnu j\ ♦ (r. — bpfypnpnA ft 
utn-GlrL-y nJtutbg np fthphtuLutifi be uthnp pnlnp ^buibt-nptLubpn 
ubuuth dputtbbtt «£/'/ t O r p$H tub in J np utbnhatH^ niluthp Lp 
[unpn_uth ) puratfpQbg ftp jtutpnaji be a.n<ftg * ""\Aptn \outpputbjt% 
If tunut^bf wpfiliijtzP' ^ u * ua t' utjhpuih putpip l^p fttnpn.utp np 
tuftwft utpftfltaubj* P uta.uti.npp n t 

j^mpmmftX . l \^(' ' \t} tun '-P^ npnch utnCbt. Lp outpn*. 

qjtrp* \\wpntnu f\. np Lptypfi P-uta.utt.npu kp t \\Jrputtuututnt-bjph 

/?«£_ q-t—lrg I"- f^i_ pp—*- » l\{""- nt.nqba (addressed) //» 

ptouppt Y* If* putut. \nput \outppuibttftt 



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136 Beading Exercises. 



}\q%nt.utLtu1b tip ftp ututituutfib uttuinnt-^tulbp Ittrntub^ utbu*. 
%lrinii np fiyustqu/h tip tuuufJoptJb fyp b hb(? ftp kyjl) %P tautU^!? 
tru If put?* a l|^» ptui.tr , tip pun-tr t Xangq. J>kq[t ^ u '2^* u t'fi~ 
t/usjy "Pkr "£_ itnt.q.uaj % Lp futuptuquibuiT V J M'"§ n * U *\$bpLgt^u^ 
tuqhftt- UMuipnh) Lp uituuttuufttmbi? ftftututuhp) >J?b O-fttntrp np 
fc%u tuqa.tufyuMt£rp acufi tunantXtfiuft Jtf* n 

^mmummmX . f) t. p Ltrntuh I?p tuqUnutuLutu Jpx &n tf 

tntrutut. x \h u* L 'pjbfcp f*2J" u f u A t p t I* **> ututunbiugutL. ftptuuiut*. 
1b jib x \h*b* \trq%tuLtuu uttuut tuts ftt tub tnnt-tut. Lituuituupt 

7. 

\\uiL1bqp qftutttugft Jp % np ^utnfiitfi frotsfl - o -"QuthJ fytu*. 
JhupOt-h L'utugubp | Jft nutbft fuusbnL.p%trpnL. u%f Jutatunu 
^bjJiupLgx Z,ktntuopopnt.pBufr Jqnuutb* Jfitfhnpq.fi tip fuuthnt-*. 
fJf>b Jo intra tut- ol tutun*-p uuttnt. uthrpnti dp ^tupgnt-g . a <!)««#•. 
pnTi) up ^tuafia puLifiuX fttk- h u > tuutputhp tip Jtuattun.t?a x 
^tu7ktun,utLtubp nuqlranJ qnt-utpautbutj* ^truXttuptup uttutnutu* 
fumbLg Jiupq.nt.fy [>b* a \yin l. q.int.fu fyp tftu7Ctun.trJ % ^t a |ua#^_ 
np ) uttuututuftttubbg q.fn.qtunf$b % tu£-inn £ Jhh fubq.putbn nt%L^ 
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Reading Exercises. 137 

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138 Heading Exercises. 

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Reading Exercises. 139 

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140 Beading Exercises. 

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15. 

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ptmpbpmpKb tlotntuiiveut tlu»iuuq,p utirutue t puipptuex ^ntue*. 
ufih qtuphnt-irgtuex 



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Reading Exercises. 141 

16. 

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^purt/ouibg np bpCnc ^utpftcp fyfroppttp ^urtlpncpt 



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142 Beading Exercises. 

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Beading Exercises. 143 

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\\JU ftfpft iUuntVb b n^m^^mf mXmtm^JL C^m^Xm-mf y M f/ ff KW«|X 

f}.~_Jl£, be ^bqffbuiljh k Qnt^uiVubu Z, n f^*l_y "(' wfyb quft* 
niufi uuabi. q put put p ^bqfcuutbnt.p[iiVbbp t ^ut^unub'Ji JP/vc. 
qtujbgft uthntlb utttX tip tnututqpbt utnt-Utb b UJ J U tlT4?P_ PP 
hvuq anting t uipfuu/p^uip utp tbqnLU h tut-uulh Inc. putn&u/upntlt 
fiuj/a f/tq. iup[utup\utputpp n* £ni.ntvjfi J-nqntlpq-bufu putp*. 
putnu bt n > u *t Q\niu[iup y tu /i bpLnt-pftu fittun.unt-pq.pl f*uq 
tF/"/A^ u Y' U/'/"^/ Q-puib b utnutffib j»bpu/fiut%nt.pfiL%p , npneli 
< ^uitfuinotnnt.p-fn.%p uputih ^puttnutpuibnuuth' b* 

JVmu/ty *J. SoCihihtud: 



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144 Reading Exercises. 

^u^/traitf tu muffin opku utyulriut* utjpnirt uti/tunp* utpbcp 
t/iupp Uuibbttfb jlrwnj tutniruututuuSrpnL. ^nifatbnun ^niftnfltt 
u%^utpinJu/u.fiu Xutpt tip fy'ufyufi ^t^y, |)u/^u#^... Uu/<£u/^...t 

n^_ ^ic kfi ,u u ^z/t^L P^ "'-pit k n *-t u u "vt ^* u i u p % 

W^fji. ^nifutftb Jkf^ nt.p np irpputu* Xutptp l^usj hl. fyn ^u^t % 
P"l/S •ff'^'fr kP k^pbtru flk %p tloutuuuiu iuyufiu , utjbpuib 
Xuifbp Ifp ^bnutbuy abut t utbtj.uin.iup bptfbbintf JfttrtObnjb 
Jb^tuJlunXfil^ nnp.lrpa.py \&u$^uilg . . . || ut ^uty .. . |)uf ^uT£ . . . s 



\\puhrh pfr uyq. itufltp j ut l fi unburn If uiu nnp.bpn.1b 4" ^A- 
ututbutb Pn*nL%ft titty np J'utJlubutituiL t/utpn.buttbu J^utb t/ptt 4"/» * 

l^inarlrop duMjp Jjw k ut l t » u-npnifuia.ni.p- tfiujp tilt t #»/» up tub 
upiuh tip ni.tr 4/f | |Ju#^m#£ u/tr/x.ti , fuutpinttiutu-lrn ututututbft Jp % 
npnt.% *lp u *J * na -ft ynuinutpt W"ty>ut1b pnt-nu ufipni/Lusuinuutb 
trp ushnp \bint f\u Jutjp ni- npn.fi ftptupitntf irpgutufif tf>u , 
9tuui IrpQuJbfib . . . t 

Q*utjg % putpt?) utjb J-uaduiuuiljblrpn unifnpnt.pjiL.1b fyuip np 
bpp butJnLpQdft LtunnLgnu^p t fncpirpnc. nnfiubpn uf* put jut*. 
^&inc ^uttfutp Lp nn^^fiu tutu utnutOfiu. utb£p % np Ibnptup^ru 
LuJi/ht-ppftu ifpusjtfb uj nut Of lit tuunuttT tuuuu^p t I//'/ 1 u tl u RfSp 
iMilS"/' t 9 nL P PP lP b UiU * t lkl , ' u u*~ Hpukg utJif^h bn^tububpnifg 
pnuuinif £p tfttffbfrfib t(u$JhupQ(ix 

\\tutptnfi2utn.irn\}ui}iu6 , n#» '*7« utua.nt.p untfnpnL.pf»L%tn 
>hp a.bmbrp | i/Ai. <y» i^r | nftutbtnt. u%utg uttb fyuttfht-pdjt np 
n.bn. unp pftunctuhr ^ jOunuib- 4/» » ^*- quLutpPf JputJfim , utbguiL. 
Lajifhcppfiu ifnuy^b . . 1 * 

l^i.<ifa , untfnpni.pfiL.vp usbnnno £y# , |Jm#^uj£ n_<fptunij. 
qn^p anutL. utjn. unpuijku ^tni/hcpffiut 

Xfuttpp uthnbtnutb unjb ut^natfi n,J-ptunn.nt-Pb uth t y^r 
uufututp np ftp npq.fib n.uy % nt. ^p ut£^a.pinJrp P^ nt-p ujbut*. 
autb fc utufii frutjg ft nnt-p % fuutpuifijtuu-un^ U a/< >"'^ ui^^tfhput^. 



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Beading Exercises. 145 

n.utpXtut.x |)c *I* u ipp fuaun.h utfcu +npu LnnJp pbuutL. tftutnn-blnL, 
ftp ufrpuiLush au*L.usLp. . . ^xuyo uttrnilpb uss <n.tnutL. qutbht 

* 

H £ tl""^ n pP u ^ u J-utitutuutL ututputhrguiL. uvtu ututputputnn. 
ilusjpp nrn.XslrpnL- Erg. utbutusn%trpnL. u%0 * tfih uttt.tr in tl nt- nnp.ui*. 
1**1 f'P uffpusfyusufih fynpnuutnttt Qpflh u%tyu tut , >^%P Q-f""bp 
pu*tu£u, fd-bt-trp tun.tUL. tru uiusuusl. on.hu u%C t 

f|c uAtLfc ft djrp n.ft fir pnutuu tfftr'nt-pr-Jrtuu u%0 fibpnfthpp 
h tub ututr It nnpLtuj ftp uitl. CktuLtuututttfipp trc tntuutuL.hu up 
tfibtnn.^ ftp uftputltuiu qtug.tu^p tuhn.tun.tup Lushitrintl wfvptun.hu t 
yu/<£uf£... Xl.u^uty... X}u*^tu/,...t Qnxlli, <hM<iiuadhiua: 

Qtrm«#%r^i«ftr J*"ptfn ofllrutuu tfnu (? unt-ftpustfusu , n^i ^t 
"t0 tytuififtntftl; f*u*_ np ufiplrltun.njb I? Jus pn.lt tut fib uputftux \% tr* 
push ust.Lifi ufiptrfft J> UJ 1b ><"//*» tltuip ^ irnptutp^ J* 1 *//' } us tin l.^ 
upb f utut-uttf) uiL.tr ip \hpmujift J>n*u us unit a u ftp tuts tfinfiiusnuspA 
tluijhtnL.Jp) trL. ut t. trip up pus truth J>wu "*/ u jfoutwiutittlrp ^ 
npnbp tuunbntt% unL.ii.utut ffttut tub frit tub jwpbp Lp p n tlusb n.utL£- 
&L. Lp putaututp^- iyn- usutVb utuntj pusuirppt f*>"fu Jph £ *¥&* 
uppusCtrpiP tfiup n. Lust pit t^tuLhh ^uttltup ftp ustlbu \usuutuutrpnub 
u%P* utu np "kftyp *L*U ll* pihuitlp) 1"p "i^.'W- n - tu -( 1u P k tu P n 1_ 
£ must ushnpi u^p us%uus\Jtuh % npm.% <£lrut Lutpnn ^ nutum. 
n.utut ni.fi t tyt- J u, pbf t ' u otnutp t^utLft tip jus a us fit Lbnh-nL-tuututfip 
p tupb ttutunL.pl ft Clip t 

Z^nu tfp ^usua-zfi slutpn., ^nu lf f utftntftnuft % ^uj^nj^puhpp^ 
qnpu Lp *f"yLfJ? Jtupn. usbnp u%f t usu^usJktlusut ouinnpnL,*. 
PftL.lt ilp ntXftU) trL, utupfttr usbutputtn hu^ tff$U£n.bn. utpuiiupfiu 
Lptt-uiplfnL.f£fiL,uutrp ^utTSkutfu Lunutnp fru ltl. Qp Xn.hu ftphua 
LmlrL. uifunL.p jft^utututlfhh px fh, 8. Qfcjw/kjihiutl: 

24. u£«* U-Hrc 

gbuujj unfttutttntf^ ifmufrpp \fusjfiufi u%(_* [bntibp q_hn. 
LutbutK kfiU) P uspiT L-l. ufusfb-usn. t 

Elementary Armenian Grammar. 10 



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146 (Reading Exercises. 

§truuij ihrtiiabpp^ uutuuifiL tnutuirnnih* an *f hf*^ 1 *"- b**** 
1bw*nt-fJ(n-up ftrutuAp teneUnJ Jp uiutututb fcp utJb'b LnntTx 

§buuy ibnXbpn {\^tutu Jtfx Wj*!- uifiprin ^uthut^ne^ 
fi-hJhp utbq utbq butpJptub bp $uifltiutu.njbx f&neftlfiuhp ftp 
uuutlttblf$Dp bp uiutpqbp *"J U ifi*itfinfuni.pbutJpx 

]$iutusn%apne Jk$ utbpbubbp u.utiutpni-u»hr ftubuthr krfl* 
tttrmfih* l u P>b'p2J u 3 a 1j k m k nt ''L. jutuiut^ Jft Ifp IfutnJkftu ua* 
tnnhp ♦ be hrutn.irpb^' ptuutbp fipb*bij utnhXfi LutnJfinnJu.ni.uut*. 
busL Luthut*nt fd-feup q.nt%u»enputhr trh* q.usiutpnx.uthr fihbutb 
tft'i- utbpbultbpla uti uinbXuttjutbr but 

■gutpuiutp Jp&ftuubp ujfiuifi qfutbfiu } utfiuifi neuneuuiu* 
ubpbffb putpm.%utb , * J/ >J?^ r /Y* ?l u '3* ,n l ^ t ^f tu P u ^ r i 9 ptiq-opfxbuttj£rtne 
be jopffhirine ^utJiupt — Wpnt-buuif/h ^puspsutp 'hutfuutltXu 

t "at* 

Qfwt- tfp u y kpp t£utbtjhl?ft utbutujn.fi a?usJputhbpk%t "U't 
Jftfd-fuiupfi be autpuiutputpaebuut ^nxfutuusenpnt-ftlbuth Jk$y 6p 
^fiutuutifi uouAt*biuta.nphr Jututfth Jputit 

}% u£_ t"1™sbk uthuiustihbppx \j*uttibpp aTutJune bptyffc 

bqbppubpneu */[*"£/ "-trJff-fiJuttj fu%n.nt.u % qfiputp qpfyuib l^p 
\utJpnepbu * jutqPutlfuiu fyuiJiupubp bp Xb eutcjub'u utuinbp , 
npnuo uiutbfcu JutJkpnJ b'uthijhhu nen-utb bni.pbpnJ* utJbu 
fynqtT q-bqbtjlfni-P[iL% ) u.b qutpnebum , nuiufq, uiuttjb uti "y"-*- 
tqk u > \unufuthpu utfb uturbu Jftutjh bp ^uihq.^p t 

^utbqfiiubtpuj uyhiuftujt nuuibpne ) npnhg t fp u (J btutt-irpne 
^fieuneuthr tuuutt^hbpp^ qfhrbptt ne utnbqhbpp u»Jb% ibenif^ 
ne JbbnefJuutJp , upututbtfin £fiht 

t}C utunbg funl^JhAu be UDutu£uttjni-J > Jfiuyb uxnefib fthlt 

fiuifiqliU d*. *£. tfJikikufyihiuG: 

25. brifr bri^r* 

\X^ne <^utJuip utju^uiift m fun up ne utJqnfh bu } fykpuif^ 
utuuqx Wu^nejut q-kj_ [nt.pbp ftlti t^p pbpbux 

Stlp* u*£_ %bJ* fpvutp uuteutuuifipp pn.ubt* fl-fr "p 

hrntfbobppp ^bpbv%u»j % utJbu pu/b jphyusb £. ifutub ufc utittrLgp 
Jfcy pbputla une utpfiXin. b'netibu t 



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Reading Exercises. 147 

*\*bn. [iioupp pbpuiuu kp% be ui^ui fyuitntunfi tuJp.nfup 



\^unvg utntunuiLp jutuntun umein^utha.uuijib U%0 flat*, 
tfmcnn fttnnJtuininuii^nbbpneU itu/hftu tip uJuiu^px \pututub'< ^ 
n.tueu*au*u | l(n ten^fib , ntyi bu Jbq pptuhr funumneuub-piex 
Wqtuinf? nJhnu»Uoltrni.pa%ki be frffc np *ne%fiUf uipbeun. utnep 
np fttuVho x 

llulrifujfitn 4 } <\*ninifiunu u/unlig t[ ui ut ut nnefl b tulip n.fienuin* 
uuibtuh atungpnt- p-btaJp dp uiuiututufuiuu innutuex 

ffrtr np wpjteuntfu t^pbwup b-pftuuftp £/£*"/_) Zifpu k 

utn.^p* P'HJd P" n 1^B> tfmnm^hiT^ np u/pbuneV ftp unefiptubutu 
auintun-iuiftfubpni/it uipbt-binp nuubuob-bip u%L tfpti tut utbum, 
IbbtTx \jfib t [u"UL mnuimuipuip uiihnelbn tip *bpbt?bun % U {J U 
uitnbu iru &bnJ%r t/iu^u tuftutjt ftthiepbtT* ( lu fJ3 Jfiu+be uyb 
atuibu unih atutfpni.% ^btnbebgfan be tiuinui\ hnfcp \\ti- 
innehnj x 

*\+frLtjtuqftu <^iuhq.ujput ne uibfun.ni/ fybptutupu/lnintht unptflt 
tip ^u/hntupmfiu x 

S&pi puut^tfin. ujtu p£tuyi fyp fyutU^brU Jfiuipbpuib , 

t*"U9 P^> n T "'pbtf-utlfp tunning Jbaft iftpfyni Pfri_u gnetjubint. 
b§ib) tutinp [nj u p tfkpffiu uiua-UttT utbuiu& tuft in ft pt^uiux 

Ift. tvpba tufyp ^npf/nnuku *fe*p VH^^f • i l^t 9 i UM e n t w e\ 
n ftjbpneuAi inbnftp bnnnvupy be uuietuiubutfth t*nt.phjip 2y»tr«. 
pneuib-* *JwP bputup ^tuuubutn £*»*-^»> tunubit 

'Xjiuendi nriuiuifitmitnp itujutu&uteuii hutfe tip uiuiuinbp 
If uiutjhkp \ uiumnbpp u%/fftfy u%tj[tl[ If bpbeuuyfiu * puyg % u*euin% 
i/nLuni uivuingz pbtue *£/» bpbCbtup t bpqftpu ne tfipbnep-fteup 
2 in at ^bnne kfihx $ fun up a -J , 2^VP "iltpneu b'u/ugubp *\*nlniftunu , 
^bnuin.ftutuitip ibnpp be wipbpp uJun.iun.tup uipbitTneutu 
nuipAnegtuh- x 

f h£*Y t wpbettrtLinp ) "-^"i h uipbettheuta [u-nfip) nJ 

uu/en. fttT ^uteuiinuipfitFx ^nt-U bu frq&bpneu be ujtjutfuiine^ 
Pbtuiigu uuiuiuiuibp, op^uiuutbiuti tflnutntfnu^fpu ne ufrputu ti *?»» 
fntXbu atibnt 

10* 



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148 Reading Exercises. 

ftuyo ft lr* ntnuusituiu fc t 

— — fybputftbusun.) fluent. uiL.tr/fi utfttnt-p nu n.bn%us9r bu % 
A*^!£. ZfV iiL pkplrut 

S^Pf p—1Uit. tuvguthr 4"* us^ut utpbt-n unt-ftptulfutu 

u?uin,usq.usjflubpnu^t q-pofbfiu ntuuusunpbg t 

— — ^usuq.uspui kbghp ) usju u?usn.uta.tujfdubpn )\uutnL.hrnj 
Jibngtrb bjutfr b% , np Jk% pbt-btifu tlfteup fyft ^"fyi ♦ at - 
npnlsp np bpbvg JlfP tuhnn t/putj O-puso" b% ufttn^ uAsiibg 
usn-Obu tfbpOfib Atut/puAi puAituit \puusu p*"pntfj ptupb(^tutT % 
utbti.fiu tut bn utbubnt-ftbu t 

fknt-pbpnt. ->£««/ <^4-ti/» on -P if* pun.usgufrp t ptjiPusubp Jb^ 
b-tu2utn.ua* bn tuuttnpusuutnt-^fiu * <\%niatliunu usufunntf Q^iPP 
bpfyfifypf* TfutJhnpn.nL.pbuAt bn ujusutpusuut(?p , be us^ut jutb^ 
butpb >f>p u bnntU^u tutu abb tuljtg Atujun stsbrfi bouse x 

— brtfo* hifi" 

£np *>£_ t*P il'S^C tp u-at-jtufyb^ be ^njnJtunufi <^utu~- 
atupn ^uttluspXusbbp 4y* -jnt-uuiinL.) Ibnpusbusu. tup bunt-lb atu~ 
nuin.uMjftubpntlpi tneuusenpnetub b*bpbu%utp % bu uusLUtuutfinn 
usju tlbb J tup it. neb nut on ftufyusbr* ftp bug jfonp^tufyusuia-ptbusu 
Uiusnuiututfuutnu iunubpn usJbuutbuspnn }\uutnebnt bn ptup^ 
Zpiugubfib* 4iUMU$M<)nj 11. — 9*1111 fjiunf in dhuid: 

26. n£-rf* 4>rLn-v- 'e- 

tfrussbus^usp be tlbsusUiunXftb uttrfbutu tfjt tnfunep X **»// 
pnJfi* n.bnbgLnt-pbutltn l^n % doth ft tufbush uut afbpfutaneuusjfb 
utbutuptuun t qnp ^ftusgtfiuu pnt-n.% SP u fJllB na l_ [bgnetub Ln 
nftutbtP ^ftt/iu . bn uftutbtT ^fo'i- >"t» % /?«-/» tup ben tluspn tfntn^. 
ub[ne i/ow' ufyutub- b "£// °' a - u Js/*£_ •fif'lL < ^ nn ^^CL utu ^i n t- ftp 
gtubgbtub nub ft 3 n L \B* r pp* »*- ^uu % usjil tuuuut^Jtuh btuusnttnftb 
tfpusj % usJiubpne ibputbpn* linju gnjobpku ^pn,b^netub uyb- 
jtutu B-bnbufib) usjbpusu tefiepusbusb . . . t 

foe uuspunuspbp unt-p o ut up Jit b'usugvft butn.bpnu Jnusjbu 
nu y hjbusu utbnbg utbpbtXtbpn^ npnba *np bu bt- q.ntJbutut » 
"pu> t I^P9 ut i n f u P 4 'uspJibb bp jbutftu tubqop 9 n l*B.bpn una. 



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Reading Exercises. 149 

wErpbLUjftt tut ft b-uin.trnnt.1U u%0^h % n.utptnbpnt% ifpuij n.uttbnt% 
nt- utubuinffL . . . t 

flc tru I tun tub- ui+bpu ^nu % nun ^buiqybutfc n.nnn.nCnt% 
l L:Pt^ U LV u P kP if** [if* tfttrjputJht.utpfi fupnfuut abttbbpnt. butfiu % 
uli a^nntfeiMtubinJ ftp gtubtjuuib nubft 3 n [jptrpp, l^p 'bu/jftT^ t^p 
uuMjftJ* VM#/rnclrM#£ % ufiputu uthnbtuifth utpmJutift Jfiutbq.tuJuMjb 
j>usqgp ^jftjuiutuilfubpntfii tunjft . . . t 

\jl. usjn. ifbnjfipnt-uubpntf ututpiftutlfnt-Uib Ifp funp^ftiT 
tuut^ Jp rnXmlmm Of — -*"*!* bt. wl«Ht>«w^ opbpnt.u tfptuj | npnbp 
fr?t "kJ u ujw^nt.li Lb tulip ftu Duutubt-boPp utbn.uipX tnutpft^ 
ubpp Luiqtfiub alb » nt. L'pubtT* B frtr* £ Jt» <i, ^»+|»» I* fit? n* 
ftputn.npb-nt.uik- jybpnJ tru tnt.uujfiiuipnt.p fiuuubpntf futuith 
4>> trf"!. •*£» np lfnL.tf.ujf nt- If ufhghft . . .t ff 

<Qonnn 9.. Vfii/hdhmd: 

27. CriH^ brfn» 

(IfrntlUUiu AfiLtn:J 

\ytumubpu i nub tub nt. tfuJitub") Lntttbpp buibputguibr 
L tup dp tub ) ^tr «A» gunnutftbbpntf b tub Lnt-tub j npnuh fubnTCnu* 
ptruih it-btT \tubtututuutLbp Jpu £y? A/? n-b'fhp^ % um tub fcp % 
JUMp juipdbtntf tuubnp nt. nbpiutup . Ltupbtntf quipbintfj 
"bv" HUtpbtntf^ Ppnt-tuitnt-p butb ^ tuuoPnt.pbtuu arc tuaut*. 
tutupuabpft u%0f bt. ftp uifttpui^u+fitjb Xutjhntfft It bpnl^p pur*. 
tufiLftu a-pn.pt 

\\utpbt % uuiptrt) Lutpbi* uph* utputnuinji up fttoufi ututbfi^ 
J>bu Jbpbt. . Lutphriy but pa- #j wtuLutL.fi 'u Lutpbt Jpusbt. np 

tuuutnbpp tbut/ffih utnututnuinftb u%0£u + f| £» n.bpnt.pfit% 

£■ utiu a-bpntft9-fit.it t upp t? •flpfluutn'ufcff utpfuututuAfa £ uwjux 

Qpfuutut^f) .luifuutui^r'i uipfuLuutl?) Jpb^bt. np f'ibipn. n-utn.*. 
uutt x Qpfutuutfc y tujfuututfc ) utjfuututfc | upbeat, np uiyabpn. 
tuntnnpfib nt- n.ngnt.fiut f&bnuibfipp qutp£ t °Af*PPi ututnutnp 
Ltupt?* upu*bu np Lnauiuubpnt.lt ^utuubtnt-n. antSt^n. '/ a, p 
bjbtuu nt, b put n fin. u%C uti ptupntXtuqbu qutpbix 

U n*^_ u ^ ut PtH% "PP uftpbgbut^ ^1/pbp nt%fig^ ntf_ Jutp^ 
n~f>t(s np Jtujpbp nt. Ifftbbp ncbftp y IfutuiL. fj? qnp Ifp ^""^"fip* 



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150 Reading Exercises. 

uyi Jusq-tfuyfih tuptuptuhrubpau tftrufyp £. btupt? % btupf? f 

**P2** H tu pb \ (utrnanvfl-lruSb) tuuop-at-p-biub be tuJCutiuiupiutgab 
Jtf* l^pljltutl^ flb^bpatf^ ffn fytupbu tuiuiaiutfon. flh*iufcu bu jus- 

-tbk *£ * 

a ?*uyg f!u£au tiiu^at-utu fuotfpp lfpUbtT % tfuifita t uaufyiujp 
fyt/u/fitpfih fuouup* tuuap ut^tup^au tj.^J^^b ^biF £u/uuiup bu . 
uu* ujjhouth ftuX ffp utlushft s bu tujUatuu t^p udtuufid* tuuap* 
h-nJutuiiu^nuptru/b bpfyutp opbpb biqpnt flV ffi,utaat-tub- t btu^. 
I'^lP ?**& t n p ^ u$ gb uyugtub unuij^ plUfJ* bu ffwp ftupaq_ 
tunfbtuu tlpuh au tupfn-%n uybputh tutftuti putuht 

•*l|ayfAy, ^tupir^j fytuptfjj. fnF ut^tutuiaup-ftubu bppbj* 
^fUbflbuutupi fee /'*^^_ b uibap £fp$g£ t jutp/j-fr uth^nqph Jp t 
*ap ^mg tijt bu tjtitjnutflbbp i utu jCbaatub- usn.utuununn % usju 
gacpta uitu/uimiu^uiiiiubrp , fawptub tuflnit. Jtt % be ugbpu/U Jbpif 
uttuiu dp* jbnp^uifyuti biP uutnubpfiu t bppbuu ujju tutuutfiu 
tipuMJ tmtupiubaubtat-% ^tutilupt 

u l^uipbi | Ltupbly btupbiy ^h h ut btipb p ft tip tutu tutu in 
opnt-tuu lib 9* "«- b*upbi | (f"*l'btj 'ipy'f* k tu i L} ^PP °'t!L "CU* 
but a. b «*- uautaat.b. bpp bpn.ftpfih btabpop bftbba%tuUhbpp Lp 
biub^iru bpbug pybn yphbtau t fib A gat-ghbiati utpbub* nubb*. 
qobautub ibbinat-phfib t be. uuipauu^b tuiQpbnufitu jfijbgubtotii 

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£nL.[$iut utuuiijfatjbbp juihlpupb- utttffiu l^p ifmtjifjh) 

l^pb^intultfitjblfp Uibfd-lru \m--jX- nu *bt»-"»ff » 

— % ^tr* lut^ay-puitf* ptiL.pfwny tAgpncp^ Jftuup tf*fpn. 

\*pb%tj bpq.frb ffp^y [iiT utatJIipu* bp/ffi'l . . . 

kf_ t^n JntCbiuit funhftubg) ^"f- t tff'ZJ" t i»«ftfc A^£j 
\pfl/b*pL. utyobppu btuUputUu/b ouingp ft Itfibf. . . t 

Elementary Armenian Grammar. 11 



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162 



gjiunt-uib ^IrutUpfi funu^ <f-pptapt% usbut[unp<f , 

if u0n.u»%Xbus% us iT [upgfilrfiu u%f^ ICP-tk l" n P? * 

^VPH P m ^ll+ t Q^_ q-Wix t hu$jnt/_ fyutJutgni-L* 
\CbJi t[n puthuy t^putt^utputhftu tfibi^irp unja. i 
|^^, ^nt[.ttijni%tj ) %pt-fiputfyu/h uyq. ujut^ntjb* 
\unn^ni-nnfiulrpnL. {unpfth* utbbrftp nu uAt^nOL 

\f1i£_ Ut^tUtp^hbp ZmSmjlmfmjf Uj.~j.jJX 

||m B-utt-uttfih* u/hp-utpP us^uttjpu utnffib . . . t 
|ji_ Lp uLpufftT tru utt n.mix*UuMi ututiha ^iruw , 
|p/tr«£i_ u»%£ni-L s/htnpfi Jjtutppu u/b^&ut . . .• 

l\X«J.~«t % np tj.utn% % ndluhg , uyfng u/uai-p fcp 

\}/>putu nu <^ntf.ffu £_TlU{'4 n 1_ lipgutb jnu^bp 
^pit.bqu Patfutb- k O-uShltfiu uiui£ t tttf^ uftutfc . . . 
XlphuiiT auihnbu Jnribuii tfjujpl^buib tfp JJifl-^ . . .* 
•| | ^l*l«rX . . ypbiLm-iT iT puutnutfphb pot. np fttrn-ttfitt — — 

\\pljbutututtnfyk fli[&trpu tffijuitrpu (»'°J_ "L. ufii * 

frusta bpp nt-qquiP utltuop huttnt-uthrapu ^lrnnt-u % 

\£uuiutpusa.fip ^npfianhfih u&L.£rnnulb % 

n'*-/' % ^<"tfp, bpuiq f>pwp aptfwb ffp ^uijfihf 

f) J U9UU UlftUt 9 fit/A mt^m,lmjjX J^mLm^X . . .1 

17. ufr" 1 *' 

(frfijirplU iuutnnirp nu tnuuhusL % 
QlrpArtfh utt g n £J>h wpbi-nt-tt 
\\p /f£* u /fi'tr gupni-lbutf 
\fptflifiij fyutufnjuipts tub^nuh) 

P>ft »w o ut Jut It tilt uushuitult) 
% rj*u*n-lrp % ftiL^nultp m. Jutptt.pL 

M/» jnjutiflit- jnt-pPl ^ifuif 

\*p utjirwg u%f__ ^u/b*j-wpu>fi'tj 



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163 



hri^kf* bn<[ndb % gtuJutgftb 

Z,"l[i iT 9 u»bpfib- % uthtupiutn % 

18. 6--M-- u !-rt' 

l»"^r^ o^^ %JuSb l(IShun[np % 

\}pobp[i ttTu/b unt-pp nu {imp, 
*£ui% qipLufih p%£_ iutptunp . 
frq&fi «y£cf /'^^ £<«/ ^ujpnLutn 
h ^£_ f.n/nt.p&Mu% qnjij. utbnuuui . 



19. ^.t r .^^ U^Cfc. 

\\yu s JJP ju»p y P£ irpPiutT 
Zf^n-riL. bplfftp uiaubq-fuutfiLy 
Ut//_ 2!"- u " t 4- ^ m q-UinlitutT. 
f) ^» «^"^ utuusbq. ufiputfyuSh 
8" L /' ^»^» 'hyp* J>nu ^tuJpnjpx 
\\nutu ^tutfpypU nc a%iug. 



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164 



lie//, b mm P **2k am P^fi i 

fan. tut- u»nuL% ftp Louuia 

Z^trnaL. bplffip tyutun.fuuifi£ 
\P&n.utufttP tru utuJ-tutTx 

V\ WtJiliPiutiktua: 

20. \»-f~~* >> uJrr« 

|\auiAC Jtt XJpush u \% %£_ tti.it/iu , utnffiL . 

Slruuy qusjit JftbutLy ^putm.tP } Jttmutbfyntn , 

^uuttub piPpb fapwlkt fl*- fat. tutu tntOJi^ » fl 

H>Jjft utpgnAqtulrpnq^ u \\uiftnpJi f ^putufnt-puibr 

tor uuykp ^trn-niX) [\nuj£fiu <y>£fc, 

|]£x. tf£«- utttiuhrpadu Z^uu-uiu/gft ftpbr% % 

f)c h-nifntX fupn.ni£_t \utuplrj qftu ^ a-phutj . . ,» n 

*/. fiiil/kittd: 

21. n^^ f -. r -. r ). 

<^uipnt.uulrpp tl/t^ut <Zfiutrpu Iris 
^wpq.u»bjihrusn m. pngtubnj^j 
\\t/tubp l^uttunjut s ui^jtlrp Jbqnj^ 
<\*fiuo»iai.flfiuu Jit ffp pnt-pbut 

Wjlru/Lvbp utip Iru jutuputlrutts ^ 
Hjun% iMipiiutafitu k vnp q.tupnJb ) 
tlA>f£/' uputtfu uSuiju^f/tt ^trtinuu ^ 
f|c (utuivhpt.fi u $[iu jp-nt.pirutu% 

\}ptuatulq>[i .gwqgp ou opbp t 
\nt-untfy P1fP ni l__ y*uqat-u*b jtut-k** % 
%\lrtultafi nt-afth Jfty*» tupuStui.frut X 
\f*ut n(t fob pat. u%0u £ tuut^nt.irp t 



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165 



\\lffnn Oncpntf^ Ifp hun-u»lfr y 
\ni-uplilfuyfili qbpq. ^««/^/^t 
\7Ctufypb ufi-u uabninpp ^twfiuft 

*^tun.ui£_ £nt 4 b[i ftp (rptj-fih ^bm , 
fruyn.irpn ijwt- ^U*i» utuap fipob , 
\\ tuhgbfi uthXutjh uitfrntjbphirptt/ , 
{[JLfiuihpi ift£_ kCWHJ i&^btnx 



^ntf-ffh uuitytufb ^"-fbp ^uiutnutjj 
[\Jk% ptu% Ifbqb- fynt-f.iv/ fyuipbtrU) 
\} % nt-flfitt tfiupnq^ tuunuufft% uj£ru 
ll'nt-qk php tut Jht.pfS% lrp[tlui[j 

l|« ifbputh'hfih JJr^ui tj.utpnt3i%&pi 
f)*n tnLVb/rpn fynt.if.utb ti#yi£-tr, 
§lru utph-fti%b^tl§ ut£^ unfuftrpb% 
\\n uptuthuib ttiubift *lf*p* 

\y npnbbtF qn*-p nu uptnutpirfy^ 
Qt"L.tt Uint -P tf.bpbqt/u/ltfih , 
^/ tt -pfC. u $ u "fyfl{p tfirptubutnJfpU) 
XPuttrpt/nLpfii.%1 ^uii-uiuip, nt.p k^ x 

/?». nwUiihrnCL: 

22. m — j — s 

Jh'jy Pn^btufy ufipntX) fl tigjuify utVbptTu/b ) 
fftffi. ^utuiMiututpfitF fytt/putujbut tf.u*phuth> 
\\uibui4 nt. uftiptunuid* k tlft^y £ nL - *y nt -pwfyi 
«£#»t_ trpfyhutfyivtfiup* ff&f nt - fyutufnt-utuify. 
A^P2} nrn l_ tf^ PpP nut P jjhwpfrl Ptr£bpt 
\ft. ant. tnutpnt-uth Jtf_fyp ufusfyufi &pJbn.t 



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166 



\}t- mtttfk m—pfi pkbi Jfi yrpfuth* 

*{*mphuib aftbhrtac pblflip mhpmJ-ui% t g^ ,j 

23. 0. L —.^t, 

\pfii£n.brn. njJ~ nubftu n.ni- auJlrtttufb op 
\\ufpat-uutfi ^utjutp Jip^fiu* ptM/iptr^ni. , 
W$fiv*pp 9 ni[Jtupn. % LuipLuanuib Urn on J 
\\nj>w»fi tr</2vtr % £ap <£***£ ifna-pwjni. t 
\*ul( Irppnp ^nijbftu pbuit- n^ Jfi jnju 
•£<**- y^fi *Ip**J — — *in.mbtj wuiuiwUJluls 
Z^tujplfbfi bpfifipn. op<^t&tnJ % uj*a»n.fyf!p 
|y«- jnt-n. aJJbJa.ni.tt* ifiujlp a-trphaJtubx 

friuji(lt/\ 0. lldntfibuid'. 



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IV. Voeabulapy. 

A. Armenian-English. 



— Indicates the repetition of the same tvord. Words in paren- 
theses serve to complete the sense of those words that precede 
or follow them. 

uiqjrf,* supplication j — tupfa*. 



ui^uiptu^ farm. 

—ifi tail. 

tut^um free; — «»/?«•»/• deliverer, 

liberator; — fy_ to save. 
—If nation; — utQuAt relative. 
vuqhm-u*l(uA* nobleman. 
utp-ifn. chair. 
uffforir cheap. 
—l_ too, also. 

'"L L * * • no mor ©« 

—[ke wave. 

usfunn. stable. 

utfuupdut^ appetite. 

utfuupJ-fn^ to like. 

««#*fy_ to lay; to play (on piano etc.). 

muMf[J, razor. 

—*bd!L to shave. 

iufyuA*f ear. 

«»(l>fttf^ to expect. 

w([i,j[ui[nupituh expectation, hope. 

uii^nuUp. club. 

ut^n.ufj tOOth. 

tu^utp\i»L. terrible. 

M«{ar(i.tt«M^f) here is, here are. 

u,$n.y& shocking, horrible. 

««^ salt. 

—I^L *° grind. 

utqunjuityki^ to cry. 

«"Ci*L to entreat, to supplicate. 

wquiuhft pigeon. 

iuqLf_ bow. 



supplicating. 
uiqtfiii-^ noise. 

""itbk giyi- 

iu nut nm dirty. 

utnpmu salad. 

utnjtuiut poor. 

tunout dim. 

uiHop^uftub miller. 

wqopfip mill. 

uj^utuguiputifft haste. 

««*?/_ to grow. 

uttfiyfi desert. 

tuJuin. summer. 

usJpnfu crowd, multitude. 

tuJpLunf_ whole. 

uiJb^fr fierce, furious, raging. 

ut»hVu every, all. 

WMuutQutputL Almighty. 

tuJfru month. 

u*Jhi.j_ barren. 

uttinuupu spouse. 

utJnunuutitut^ to marry. 

uiJhup firm, strong. 

tutOfupfi bachelor. 

•—IJh—L. to be ashamed. 

•■"fy cloud. 

utJiftn^k^ to comprise, to com- 
prehend. 

uitTop- shame; — —$«*? confused, 
abashed. 

uyp.nt_pUu alphabet. 



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168 



Vocabulary. 



*U t t lr k—-P' vintage. 
«/f f> vineyard. 
uyiuAofutb queer. 

«vy* goat; — h-j* buck; — tntf 
doe. 

«y/«°/» to-day. 

u^tn cheek. 

««//» husband. 

*Vd k lkL *° visit. 

u/isuiu^utut desert, wilderness. 

ut%u»unu\ animal. 

u#ir«M/»f lr^ to despise. 

«»trfW even; times; — «£ once. 

ui%fm±p- merciless. 

wtf^MiuJ unawares, unconscious. 

uAtf.iuy.wp incessantly, ever. 

uiuqop feeble, weak. 

uiuj&n.$uiua constantly. 

uilfi&tr^ to curse. 

uthfotuu wrong; — *£_ to do wrong, 

to do an injustice. 
utujiu wheel. 
uAfum^btT imprudent. 
u/L{un.i*i[^ calm. 

u/u^uihof^ unknown, stranger. 
utu^uq^u bed. 
ut%\usum% irregular. 
m%^mu»uMp imperfect. 
mu\u»pls^ impossible. 
u&lihqh sincere. 
u,%bf,iJh corner. 
uiu$utJh$Ruu* incomparable. 
u*uA person ; — uutQu/u personal ; 

— ^utunpm.p-l>L% personage. 
u0u»fiu$ immortal. 
usuilbq^ innocent. 
utu^n^iut assuredly, certainly. 
luiimqnpj* relentless. 
-^"Ul. sweet. 

usuHL.uiuki_ *° name, to call. 
ufraiJu noun, name. 
mhmutjCiyjC plain, unadorned. 
uiXuum^JuA* immense. 
tuhutium. forest, woods. 
u.u0u*t.mp transient, fleeting. 
uJiigkut^ past, last. 

—ijfrl'L *° pass. 
uAsoflf, hungry. 
tulop»L.pfiiX hunger. 
ut^hpm pupil, disciple. 
ui^futu$nuA,u labour. 



—ifawpt world: — uipiup modern 

(Armenian). 
ui^mtX autumn. 
"14 eye. 

usmui$mfeuk L to assure. 
uMuiuiuXfc future. 
Muiukpusfiut ungrateful. 
—Ui^pl^'H unhappy. 
""il^L to De astonished. 
uiiuul^ stupid, silly. 
tutumup soup. 
utiuuiupt^_ to order. 
mtuumusdp. rebel; — uup-fuJh re- 
volt, rebellion. 
uiiupu*%u goods, wares. 
U«fi»AL April; to live. 
"•£ right (hand). 
UMU.W& proverb. 
tum.u»X d without. 
u*m.u,f_ before, ago; — {A first; 

- /» the former. 
u»u-u»fuip^ui-Plu.u offer, proposal. 
usit.Muutntuq_ roof, ceiling. 
u$u.u»m abundant. 
"Pt^L to object. 
• morning. 
usu-uigpLfc virtuous. 
usn.iM i gp%0,a.p-fitJh virtue. 
tun.pL.h- lion. 
uin-%k[_ to take. 
iuu.at.utlf brook. 

uiu.fku before; — ^l&L t° meet. 
iuu.u»nt- morn. 
uiuhq_ needle. 
uiuqusJuAi needlecase. 
utuutfi cloth. 
tuuiubut knight. 
utuuiusn. lining. 
uiuutn star. 

\\uutmL.u*b God ; — ui^muu^ Bible. 
u*u,k L to hate. 

uMmku time; — <tg once, formerly. 
—p—*tbt_ stork. 
uipuMputo- creature. 
—Pil'L^L *° forbid, to prevent. 
-Pt-p just; — bu indeed; uL.p-ftL.% 

justice. 
utphtLutlf sun. 
uiptt. sun; — ti# east; — Jhuuig 

west. 
-'P^ua'lt^ to wake. 



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Vocabulary. 



169 



mpJu/hp worthy: — PlU"L to de- 
serve. 
u,pdb L to cost. 
T*k4> worth, price. 
"*pfr valiant, brave. 
utpfiLh blood. 
wp&uip- silver. 
utpAuM^nLpif. holiday. 

tupJiuin rOOt. 

mpJiuL. date ; — irftp date- tree. 

uipJuffe corn, production. 

—pf_ bear. 

uipnukuui art; — a#^$«r artist. 

tuftm field. 

uipuinjtn lark. 

avputoup, mpjuuYyt tear. 

$upp«u%te court. 

«wt_tf«f_ sand. 

*ui-uiquiti robber. 

iul ut%tul[ donkey. 

ivLuAi^nLpfttJh tradition. 

«"-«r'[. to conclude. 

«««-£/ broom. 

uuuhjhu*i^ to be added. 

""-&L to sweep. 

u»4> palm of the hand. 

u*tf,%, uiifmrfip shore, coast. 

utgnuquiq^ COCk. 

u.j>u, g k L to kick. 

pumiTng sofa, seat. 

ftM»ffuf/«7»n. arm-chair. 

puttfnuff arm. 

puxfuttf glass, cup. 

pu0tf%k/_ to divide. 

putty yard. 

P—W fortune, fate. 

putqif.u$u$hi^ to compare. 

puiqfub/_ to knock. 

puiqAuSly! wish, desire. 

puiigifo, bath. 

f»«y/ verb. 

pu/% thing; umJVu — pVL^au^ £ all 

hope is lost. 
p.ui%un_ to open; — f» key. 

puthtuuuth nh- poet. 

puSLnt-uib ena mailed. 
pu&in prison: — »»/»4*L to im- 
prison. 



ptujfuh^ to distribute. 

puin. word; — ««/»««*» dictionary. 

puMpu,^ thin, slender, subtile. 

ptuppum. dialect, tongue. 

pujphpuiq^ fortunate. 

puipklftuiT friend. 

pwpb&hu handsome. 

puiphpmp benefactor. 

putptrL. compliment, salutation. 

rrf good. 

puip/furbmi^ to be angry. 

piupAp high; — m#^m#*m4 tall. 

puipytu^uAs moral. 

pwpn^PptA, goodness. 

pu*pt.ipk[_ to improve, to perfect* 

pu,popnt-PpLh welfare. 

P—3 open; f£»a» — ajar. 

puigtum.HLpfnA» exception. 

pu,gutu,p»t.ppi\ expl an ation . 

pusi.iuQiu'h enough, sufficient. 

Ppnt-Q crest. 

ptm. burden, load: — WJftt porter. 

phpmh mouth; Jkb — with one 

voice, unanimously. 
ptplr^ to bring. 

plrt-hn. pole. 

pfttuJpu, dull. 
PJP'-P ten thousand. 
!»/««-/» hill. 

piuttfL to dwell, to live. 
pl„,fyf>2_ inhabitant. 
p%u*,. «/•«. pfiL% disposition . 
P%f,„% farthing, mite. 
f*»/k nest. 
p»f- herb, plant. 
pn^nt^iu^f^ to contain, to com- 
prise. 
pnt.p- blunt. 
P*Ll original, proper. 
pnun.% violent, intense. 
pnuuiufyuAt vegetable. 
P« LU %p L to sprout, to grow. 
pm-pif. wool. 
pnLpnLiT fragrance. 
pn.%k^ to hold, to seize. 
pptfhuy woollen. 
PphiT to dig, to hoe. 
PPphA rice. 
ppni-ut potter. 



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170 



Vocabulary. 



^u,^u*p- top; — iru^lrM Zenith. 

f —L to come. 

fu0iu$pmuu,& wriggled. 

f ««$ throne. 

f.wqtuif,uip opinion, idea. 

f uirturir dwarf. 

*W nail j — A/_ to drive (a nail). 

fVL. wolf. 

fui%fu$Mfa to complain. 

f.«#i»i treasure; - «"y&«« treasurer. 

9 —m-m^biL menagery, cage. 

^mm%mu^ lamb. 

+wpkfm*.p beer. 

+utpkfpm$nmJu alehOUSO. 

^utpmL.% spring. 
fwuuifuA, stick, sceptre. 

iLm^mfi- CUp. 

tbquXfr fine, handsome, beautiful. 

^kampmL.hmm^ fine arts. 

t^&tk beautiful. 

f.fr«f river; — «•»$ stream; — «•»# 

bank. 
i^kut^Tu ground, earth. 
f ty£ slave. 
^bpmL.p-^u% slavery. 
1 4-2. bad. 
*fy fat. 
fM line. 
*/& price. 
+lfckiimg_ drunkard. 
fftiifi wine. 

+ft mt L drunk; — %ui^ to get — . 
tbih night; — p-pfr good — . 
tj.{iu,lu* L to know. 
iftutm^pitL.ls science, learning. 
tte letter, character. 
lfo%us L to become fat. 
ttP4t book. 

tA«-f. village; — «fj£ peasant. 
t nt am ek fez, h&k 
ItfuutLmp chief, principal. 
*/»«-A* head; chapter. 
+h-u»^plri_ to draw. 
f *»*/_ to buy, to purchase. 
fiuifuff bullet. 
*"l**j apron. 
**$ contented; — «*-^«#J«*-^//i_^ 

contentment, 
f "{"T jewel. 



f*7 thief; — %m§ to steal ; — •% 

theft. 
*»«/• stable. 
f *P» colour. 

* m l!?L to exclaim, to cry. 
+mu.u»i_ to roar. 
t m 1t:L to praise. 
+—£*— praise, eulogy. 
f m r b work, affair, deed, business ; 

— —te^L *° fulfil, to execute; 

— u»& mL.fi- ft l^i use; — ««-«{j 
workman. 

*■«. gray. 

+ m P—b! tt t»*'fi affectionate. 

f j shut; — *£_ to shut; — /•*»*/_ 
to learn by heart. 

+ mi -U!tft stocking. 

t»*-«^/»*«-A/_ to assemble, to con- 
vene. 

a.mLX»um pale, tarnished. 

tt a^'iiu,t.nph L to dye, to colour. 

t » t Z"»t^L to predict, to foresee. 

f«»u<{ cap. 

9 «iX£r^ to find, to discover. 

? pu *pu,p literal; ^««y — ancient 
Armenian. 

HpuiukauA, desk. 

W—nlutp writing-book. 

tf*L to write. 

fflfa. pen. 

fft^L to embrace. 

tp-l, writer. 

IP&k-'L pen-holder. 

npufuit pocket. 

iwuk or ir^ mL i manual. 



'^^"1 coffin, bier. 

+—+ctL to cease. 

^^Jm^/i icteric. 

9.«<{&(<«ir piaster. 

t-fc—i knife, 

q-wjlu*^ piano. 

f-fc-kd-'-P't"-'*' confederation. 

f.««£«t field, plain. 

f.o«a.^ bitter. 

ij.u*n.%u, L to turn. 

^.«»« lesson; class; — /»l»{fy class- 
mate; — snpu»put^L.fi'pL% edu- 
cation. 



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Vocabulary. 



171 



ij-umu, P *ubu*i_ to enter an action ; 

— ujufuiputh^ to condemn ; — u»^ 

«-»/» judge. 
q~—p century, age. 
iu*ppf,% blacksmith. 
^utpiTuSi, remedy. 
0f.u,uMMi^u,t fraudulent, imposter, 

traitor; — nt-p-friX treason. 

t+v'L spoon. 

t 9 "^ medicine. 

n,bnflit yellow. 

tg-bqAtuhfiQ canary-bird. 

tf.kjtnu& pale. 

if.lt n. still, yet j — /uo$y»£ p.kptu%% 

kp he had scarcely spoken. 
tg.hutyu,% ambassador; — utfunp*. 

{»<-/»7- conference. 
1.yp-i%ntX pronoun. 
ij_lrpiuuut% actor. 
if.hpAiu^ tailor. 
^hpAut'u thread, string. 
?.£«- devil. 

T** r against; — q-fitfium opposite. 
n.h4p face, visage, countenance. 
id-pum^. unfortunate; — - mt-P-frt-% 

misfortune. 
ig.tf-ni.uMp difficult. 
tb or tf"»t corpse. 
igftwuipmli observatory. 
tf.pimuunpni.ppLh intention. 
ift»uth L to observe, to look. 
rg.Jn.gutn% hero. 
t^qhuttf castle, fortress. 
i^ k l_ to put, to place. 
tfnqut^uip trembling. 

if.n^n.nfmL.u tottering, trembling. 

if.nL n. door, gate. 

if.nt.utnp daughter. 

f-»*-4>*» duke. 

tlfo scribe. 

fHitL to touch. 

if.ufputtnnt.'u school-house. 

fHC-d school; — iutjuA, scholar; 

— -kfrd school-fellow. 
n.put[uut paradise. 
if.pu,tr money. 
•IV—db neighbour. 
tv n t. ^ag, banner. 



b"_ OX. 

buuiQfi singular. 

kfbpp bank, coast. 

hfrk if; — n L else. 

Irputf strawberry. 

*i&L to get up, to rise. 

^k^T^&t church. 

kqu/bustf season; mood; air. 

bqp-ap brother. 

Irtfpoputnifrif niece. 

kfpopnptf.il nephew. 

kqk+ reed. 

hptutf_ dream, vision. 

hpiufitug babe, child. 

hpmPtmtutf.^m grateful. 

Irptf. song, hymn; — tf_ to sing; 

— ti_ singer; — « t singing. 
Irrtbe dormer window. 
bphubui^ to appear. 
bpklf yesterday. 
Irpkg elder, older. 
hP™L to go. 
bpfSuf^ heifer. 
hpftutuiuutptf. young man. 
hplfu»p iron; — ->+t n capital 

(letter). 

bp\uy% long. 

bp\(tuufipnt.[o K lttX) work; toil. 

IrcbPip heaven. 

kp\frp earth, land, country. 

bptff,^^ fear; — ««*• pious. 

bpQuutfyuiJiup sky. 

hplfftL. two ; — ^»*» tuf_ both. 

bpltfnut timid. 

hplfpuj^uptf^ earthquake. 

kpzhk sausage. 

bpftuufclf happy. 

bpfututfULp fuh happiness. 

kf^L to cook, to bake. 

A. 

autJppif mare. 
1»ar m jP' anger, wrath. 
qutun.utQ bell; — uimnt-u belfry. 
tfuipJuAiutf^ to be surprised. 
tf*ipub L to strike, to shoot. 
atuutulf child. 

tfputqni.tr occupation, profession, 
business. 



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172 



Vocabulary. 



,goum%p amusement. 
UPoufynL^L amusing, enter- 
taining. 

iwwqbrh insensible. 

Unburn dress. 

ytpq. like, the same as. 

qbplb L to put out of. 

2£tr«£.fi/f soldier. 

vfylkt- to De charmed. 

qJtii penknife. 

^jpmufuu, emerald. 

f*$ sacrifice. 

W f pair. 

^*»^_ cool ; — uipiup refreshing. 

ymu-pp blithesome, gay. 

nnLu*pTCu*lu, L to amuse (oneself). 

vt^L t° deprive, to bereave. 

Hoput^u/b^u review. 

qopuiiftup general. 

yopivump strong. 



k—k being. 
kutajk" essentially. 
k+ female. 
hz_ ass. 
kf_ page. 
kpH husband. 

£l<9.^»j-uy soon. 

&t J bt£L to break off, to inter- 
rupt. 

jAf»iAbin±piiu% participle ; re- 
ception. 

t %y.*L%{i L to receive, to accept. 

ptifoppiutQi^ to copy, to trans- 
cribe. 

!**£_ to do. 

pLp*»j^ course. 

i^Ppk L to sup. 

c^Prte supper. 

phbujj present, gift. 

pHtp companion, mate ; — ««J««A 
social. 

&kv!bL to ^ e drowned. 

p**ffl_ to say; — —-lUfL *° mean « 



P—+ crown; — u#«.*»/i king; 

••*-$£ queen. 
/*«"/* hand; paw. 
p-usJp. saddle. 

PuAt^ujqlfo) precious, dour. 
fiuSb&P dense, thick; dark. 
pu,tflJ,%iuQ handkerchief. 
(9-usst.uiJln^ to fade. 
p»un.ln_ to perch. 
p-ausnbpus[uiuf_ drama. 
pu,u,p*% theatre. 
p,»PfJm&k L to translate. 
p-tupifilu&nup-lttX translation. 
p-utptT fresh. 
f^uMi. thick, bushy. 
p-w-u*ifri_ to roll, to revolve. 
p<M*fh L to pour, to empty. 

P-tbL to " ow (i nto )- 

p-hqubfe sleeve. 

ptpLu light. 

pt^ cord, thread. 

pb^^pk^ to suggest. 

pkpmi.pfit.% fault, defect. 

p^t%p fig-tree. 

Pq»*-4 pigmy) dwarf. 

Phj tea. 

Ph shovel; — «*4 oar. 

ptphmXH butterfly. 

ftpyhutPmH. arm-chair. 

ppt. number. 

^uuunat i to stammer. 

/&£P«uyufi*«} pocket-book. 

p%, t u,%op cannon. 

p%^u*gMii_ to resound. 

pgiu*ify enemy. 

Pint-usm. wreched, miserable. 

pmJfii-% cub. 

p$$quL.^ to leave. 

Pyh poison, venom. 

P m 4tL fascinating. 

p*»-tupiu%mt.pin3i arithmetic. 

pmL.ui4w% date. 

p n ut L to number. 

A>««- t fig 

P--P mulberry. 

p^-fu brown. 

p*uqP paper. 

P nuhuiumpb^ to poiSOU. 

p„up sword. 
Pn.ih L to fly. 



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MM/H*" 



Vocabulary. 



173 



p«L£»<_ir bird. 
Pigtuduih spittoon. 



tfuoT hour; — uthwQ time; — 
tu^upS- watchmaker; — -'dVd 
watch ; — «A«#J«iit- once. 

tf-iutiluftut^p'h in time. 

J-tuJuihhi^ to arrive. 

f/-$Mtitq.nm rusty* 

</ us <y ""-£** ribbon. 

<ftttM.itf1>f. heir; — */_ to inherit. 

tt»qn$[_ meeting; — mt -pt people, 
multitude. 

Jaffa smile. 

^•H^L ^° smile. 

<tpu*fiuh diligent. 



bq& wish, desire. 

fitTutuuini pftt.% wisdom. 

fijuiuutin3r wise. 

flP»u, L to fall. 

file property. 

Itttgltu^ut^ monarch. 

fcut^u/u ass-driver. 

fcjfuuA, prince. 

t&t'L to descend, to get down. 

b»k'U u instantly. 

bpbt—-^ evening. 

bpys indeed. 

hpl- oh that! 

pt.f^ oil. 

puputftmhifn-p each, every. 



|o»/_ to weep, to cry. 

gau^mhtu^utft laCOniC 

Ptfii broad; — «**«»«-««£_ vast, 

spacious. 
[uiusnlrhfi alder. 
ibqnt. language, tongue. 
£*. mount, — ain. 
lb* lake. 

£—[[.% quite, fully. 
iftffU'L to finish. 
in^utpat% bathing-place 
£?!«!_ to swim. 
£-/« light ; t — &*"y y L to publish. 



\ni-un_ to wash. 

int-utgtupui[niL.$l» washer-woman. 

{m^uuSitgM transparent. 

jmLu/fc moon. 

£»cwtr^ to shoe. 

I»«-P news ; — ipk^u *° send word. 

l?<-stP match. 

Uumuj^piJh silence. 

£»fr/_ to hear. 

ipw+tp newspaper. 

IPPiL.pin.% insolence. 



fi$iuplr[_ to deceive. 

fuus^%kg_ to bite. 

/uusqiuj^to play; — Ap toy, play- 
thing. 

^M/^u/^calm, tranquil; — m-Pftt.% 
peace. 

fuuiqu,^ grapes. 

fu*uj(^h L to sting. 

fuu0h—.p- shop. 

A««£_ cross; — t«»£. desk for a 
crucifix. 

fuutnJh mixed; — mg -p+ mixture. 

(uutputquJh whip. 

fuui t (uiM^lr L to grope along. 

fuwpmfc—fk^ fair-complexioned. 

fuun.tup darkness. 

fuiuftuhki to hinder, to stop. 

fr^l-sb clever, intelligent. 

b* b l4> brain, wit. 

fulrqf poor, miserable. 

A»*H fool, silly. 

luftmm very; hard, harsh, sharp. 

tuijjfJTnopl/i, conscientiously. 

fuJbi to drink. 

[u'huttfp care. 

b&i-i to laugh; to rejoice. 

falf.miJh cheerful, merry, gay. 

fu%wni%g demand, request. 

tu%w b L to ask, to beg. 

fulw hJ% pray. 

(UhAmp apple; — *ty tree - 

b»lb>ib^ rustling (of the leaves). 
b""L P*£ i ~~ k m lk % acorn. 
fum^muiT reflexion, meditation. 
Iu»$u,l»g kitchen. 

bim^supmp COOk. 

b»m^b»r prudent. 
b"u ram. 



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174 



Vocabulary. 



tun%iup$ humble. 

fumlutp^iS conjugation. 

fumlu*L. damp, humid. 

lumLf^lj, fatigue, weariness. 

h-fp big, stout. 

fauuu»uSisu*i^ to promise. 

lu»uu,m£uh{, L to confess, to own to. 

ftmummL.tr promise. 

fumta grass. 

lump, — *!.%£ deep. 

fitmputh altar, pavilion. 

fa-M—L to snore. 

^ W / , ^^L to think. 

h-Pi^L to shun, to avoid. 

fumpntn^ pretty. 

lumpmuM^k L to crush, to dash to 

pieces. 
jum.%mt.uiS- crowded. 
fun.ui^jjmja tumultuous, turbulent, 

agitated. 
fr^-iti. to De troubled. 
fuputu, advice; — £/ to advice. 
hpi^i to send. 
fupn/uu, imperious, proud. 
h ouut ktf'"-Pb^ u conversation. 
fuoufa to speak, to talk; (u^«#^ 

qutmn) — tO CrOW. 

fang word, speech; — p pn.1*i-f, L 
to enter into conversation; — 
nt -V&L to address. 



*-*t»l_ to rise; to break out. 

bu,fuk L to sell. 

Swqbb flower. 

o^usq^utut^ young. 

*—lkbL to flower, to bloom; to 

flourish. 
bwqi/mj flower-garden. 
Sutqpkf to mock. 
o-usfag or o-u»qjf expense. 
o-uAp heavy, severe. 
kusuop- acquaintance; friend. 
*■«*«. tree. 

kutpuit. thirst; thirsty. 
husutu^i^ to expand, to spread. 
*k*b L to beat. 
*«P old; — mL-uf, old man. 
hrfrlusmhifr ridiculous, funny. 
bfcMtmXutli swallow. 
buu,%fi L to beget, to bear (a child). 



Vubquy cymbal. 
ta##»2«£ parents. 
&upuin.pbi_ to kneel. 
k%oui jaw, cheek, chin. 

hm l T{ r m r m$m*.p-l*X) fast. 

*VL ^ az y> idle. 

A-*^[_ sea; — utmy or — tun sea- 
coast, shore. 
A-ffi_/fii_/?^cir laziness. 
**«-/«• smoke. 
**Al to bend. 
hrpusp parcel, packet. 
6tftu* L to undulate, to fluctuate. 



{uiqtT construction; binding (of 
books; — u t l i l l t tm b L to form, 
construct, to fashion; — t L 
to form; to bind. 

fap- milk. 

i^R^L drop. 

/fUM t mt.us& estate. 

b»ujuiunutu gibbet. 

faluL^ to hang. 

//u/4^ tulip. 

4««4»t-2_ soft. 

l(us$uiL.mpbi_ to furnish (a house). 

f«M{f«M/i«« M ^ furniture. 

t«»»/_ lame. 

{<i#fof JZu^ inkstand. 

f<«f^ oak. 

bwtltup vault, arch. 

\utJus£mi.li slowly. 

tusJmLpf_ bridge. 

iustfc will. 

\uyu»u station. 

husjbwb lightning, thunderbolt. 

\uy»r mast. 

\mffup emperor; — mt-^tX em- 
pire. 

^uAut^_ green. 

\uAtq. uimJut^ to stop, to halt. 

\u*uq.uki_ to erect, to raise. 

\utip-kn_ lamp. 

\*»un% rule. 

Qusumufu early. 

t—l'&L to call. 

^tuufutp lead. 

buswym blue. 

^utm.usu^uA coachman. 
^uitt.utilutplri_ to govern. 



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Vocabulary. 



175 



(u#«.jr£.£«f < trlr£_ to build. 

\uMma,^f raging, mad, enraged. 
tfwmuipkun^ perfect. 
I[iutnuiph[uin»p&hi_ to improve, to 

perfect. 
fyuiUHjuih- mad. 
^tuuiML. cat. 
{of/tuff, butter. 
\—p+ class, order; — fi ***/_ to 

arrange. 
^uipif.tu^ to read. 
^uf P /r L to sew, to stitch, to seam. 
j[„i r klu* L to be able. 
fa u r Mr L to think, to presume. 
QuipQautn hail. 
%u*ptf short, brief; — *£**£. to 

shorten. 
far J} r red. 
\mpJpiuiuJiif_ redbreast. 
(«r/H^£_ to redden. 
^ujfn^ able, capable. 
fuf/fom needy, indigent; — *«~ 

p/ki.lr want, poverty. 
%uijj/$b axe. 
$*~V life. 
((b^uiunp hypocrite. 
%&fbni-uiuiu,{,p illusive, false. 
4&i«*l_ to stay. 
^b%n.uiitui^fip portrait. 
Ifhl^uAft animal, beast. 
(It«lu#« cherry. 
\h«Hup mother-in-law. 
^bpufuptu'iifi appearance, face. 
Jfc« half; — tt^P midnight; — 

op noon. 
b&Li_ to milk. 
ipl woman, wife. 
^fiuutpiug ajar. 
Iftutnuu** enamel; dotting. 
tfoe passion. 
tffiJw climate. 
?lfp round. 
\b\tl_ to couch. 
ij/jb island. 
(i/o»^ skeleton. 
fjltf woman, wife. 
^^^ to be filled., to be sa- 
tisfied. 
i-p- handle. 
\-p n q^ obelisk. 
(m^m>{ billow, wave. 
\»1»T side, part. 



fyn^nuftnb^ to rob. 

\nKut\ button. 

\—lu count. 

\y- virgin, maiden. 

k M i!?L to call, to name. 

{»£»<_ «r calling. 

4*«y eyelid. 

{nuffun rude, rough. 

\>"L_ cow. 

\nurpbg_to break. 

% np bu&b[_ to destroy. 

4»/"*^_ vigour, power. 

^npnLmtn lOSS, Waste. 

4*»«-fi. compact, firm, solid. 

(»*./»*£ breast, bosom, chest. 

k*HltL to adhere. 

4*.^«- quarrel, struggle. 

j«W*- sharp pain. 

fwvufc linen. 

f •»»/» bit, piece; — k mm p p^b^ to 
tear to pieces. 

{«mc.j beak, bill. 

\pb f to bear, to sustain. 

MP* double, two; again. 

M % *L *° re peat. 

4 r %u*^ to be able. 

\putubp younger; — -f V % young- 
est. 

f«^£$ shoe, boot. 

\otfiuliuMp shoemaker. 

4 u "t il tL to put on, to wear, to 
dress. 

$*—U»L. to cough. 

^ujtjfeu scarcely. 

^us^nuuf^ftutn rare. 

^u^ui^b^ to persecute. 

^ui f f, L to melt, to thaw. 

^ui^uitM/tMUflfbp constrast. 

$u*tfb[f agreeable, pleasant. 

$u*TCp[_ to please. 

$ui*y# pleasure. 

^uiifiuAtu/ls in conformity, accord- 
ing to . . ., alter. 

^utJuMiLosj, brief; — m^p-flul* ab- 
breviation, extract. 

$u,ifiup for. 

$u,Ji»pA <»f free, frank, bold; — Aj_ 
to venture, to dare. 

^uitlpuiu fame, renown. 



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176 



Vocabulary. 



fajfrkprnup £*.% patience. 
^uiJfimjf kiss. 
^utJfiaL.pi L to kiss. 
^tMi*/mqk L to convince. 
4—Jpki to count, to number. 
Z,-u Armenian. 
$uyk£ looking-glass. 
itfF father; — H papa. 
Suilffius*, rest, repose. 
$usiif.]£l_ to repose, to rest. 
^SlifumuipuA resting-place. 
{ufir^urjtMi quiet, calm, tranquil; 

— of£l cooly ; — fi[_ to appease 
to calm. 

{itflf £iy^j_ to meet. 

^uAiTC-p genius. 

$u,2. mt "-bL *° De reconciled. 

{uMfiwf age, size. 

{«M«{f1baf^ to understand. 

fam%fi L to arrive, to reach. 

^MfMfttAr ripe. 

$t*nmp volume. 

^mpuiu south ; — ^ffif — ern. 

$wpb tax; necessity ; — —w^L 
to compel; — «««-«f necessary, 
important. 

^utpmi^uim rich, wealthy. 

$u*pm bride. 

^utpmmmt.p-^% wealth, riches. 

^u»p a muir question, interrogation. 

$wj bread. 

^-c hen; — ftp- egg] —4 fowl. 

^«-*»u.|. equal. 

^b/li«w«^ to believe. 

$u0M-iutniupfrj* true, faithful. 

{«m.«4j»««.^j_ to join together. 

{frf&aatfuAr ironical. 

<^ f t 0/ >^ jocosely. 

$*2_ meek. 

<;&£«#1^<_ bicycle. 

<4^«tf author; — mi.p-fa.% au- 
thority; work. 

^utm^ delightful. 

{*«.«i*f.^««4 telescope. 

^bm.m\uiM- to gO far. 

{*«.»«_ far, distant. 

{£» with; — *«-&_ to follow; 

— kt-mpq. attendant. 

^ku,mifipg r $tL.p^f,u% curiosity. 

<;bu,tru«,%£ consequence. 

^km^lrmk successively, by deg- 
rees. 



$qop mighty. 

^£* poor, unfortunate. 

$frui%u, L to admire, to marvel. 

^a*j«cJ* admiration. 

^JS» now, at present. 

$/* old, worn; ancient. 

tyi-uAi^ sick, patient; — «*1>«0 
hospital. 

$[,u»b L knit, to weave, to en- 
twine. 

{£«.«£« , — «^/r1r north, — ern. 

tyi-P guest; — w%mg parlour. 

^lutytuii^ obedient; — ^ to obey. 

frwpbi^ to invent. 

^u'/'fc inventor. 

$*lft. *° pronounce; to ring. 

$»*£ soul; U-«-/»/» — the Holy 
Ghost; Jki-'-'i' >[puy — tau$i_ to 
love tenderly. 

$» L top. 

^m^f, unveiled, naked. 

$*imf*u»r declension. 

^»* compact, dense, thick. 

$*q_ soil, earth ; — —kv m mound. 

^ajmt^Mf grand, magnificent; e- 
minent. 

^-VL wind. 

$m»[w%tuu»pmup-fri3i shadow; pat- 
ronage. 

^Hjutlfi shade, shadow. 

{»£o*i»«9 umbrella. 

^-^m valley. 

{•{£«. shepherd. 

^mpp^mh horizon. 

$mt-<H*»- robust, strong. 

^w«««j subject. 

{«7a»/M» proud; — —-&■£*.% pride. 

^n.^uti t u$unp renowned, famous. 

*«4«W giant. 

Sputfalf exercise ; — fii_ instruc- 
tive. 

Spuidfyk/ to command, to order. 

^piuJUit command, order, permis- 
sion. 

$P*UPe ardour, fire. 

^puM^jt, marvelous, wonderful. 

$pmfu$p*,% market-place, square. 

$pusmwpm\bi_ to publish. 

$puigut% gun. 
4pw-bplrL_ to invite. 
^Pt^ fire, conflagration. 
^P^L monster. 



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Vocabulary. 



177 



^oputgnjp aunt. 
$o P irqpujj r uncle. 

^opbqpopnpnf, 1 



cousin. 



a* 

Au.fr, (Unj,) left (hand). 
Auy% voice, sound. 
AlrmXuip^ enterprise. 
AknXng glove. 

Abn^, hand; — »i£.by..., through. 
AbpptuLtufb^ to arrest. 
Ab*. form; — ujLb ruf b L to form; 
— tutfbtri _to shape, to represent. 
*A horse. " 
Afrp-buf, olive-tree. 
^A*-* snow; — !*[_ to snow. 
<t«/fr*. winter. 
An^b fish. 



qtuJputp lamp. 

^4 rudder, helm; — u»i[tup steers- 
man, helmsman. 



tfus^tup rabbit. 

Tfutfaut forehead; — «*^/» destiny, 
fate; — mJutpm battle. 

T&ut/puy way; — hi^L to sefc out - 

XuiJpnpy. traveller; — A/_ to tra- 
vel; — »i-P/n-u journey. 

7CuAiLn.utnt^ scratch. 

■fuSugtu,^ to know, to recognize. 

*um2_ dinner ; — uign^uiL reckon- 
ing; — k f to dine. 

tCoi^uL taste. 

XW»*t essay, speech. 

"Aom.Muq.tufP- ray, beam. 

Xwp means, way. 

T&upmtup skilful; — utpmubutn ar- 
tistic; — utujbtn architect. 

TCb^h to cleave; to crack. 

iCbpiHuL white; — tnku linens. 

^f^H to squeeze, to press. 

*tlt just. 

Xb'-'L branch. 

XfH knocker. 

****"•• t sparrow. 

Elementary Armenian Grammar. 



* *Z*L to press, to subdue. 
^lt^i_ to adjust. 
■fyfiupftu, true, faithful. 
■tfitfiupmnt-PfiL.u truth. 
*»A« rich, opulent. 
TCpuM^uiLuii^ candlestick. 
TfoiCuSbutfy pendulum. 



Xuhmt-u clotted milk. 

uiu$ death; — ««.•»% m.iuu$u»uiuip^. 

""•4(. to suffer death; — %-^ 

uutanu mortal. 
«"u,<;frX bed. 

«%/• mother; — tk mamma. 
tfiujpu$ifiia.u*» sunset. 
inufputgmqtup, capital. 
Juiubuili necklace. 
Jlii'hLnt-PftL.'h childhood. 
ifiuan*_q child. 
Ju»h^ lad, boy. 
Jiuup, — fify small, minute. 
itatjuib worn. 

«/fc« part; — ^th particle. 
«/«■»*» finger; — —ufi ring. 

Jluutbu/u book . 

timutbuutifpnup-ptAt literature. 

iiuimbuuin.u$pui% bookcase. 

uuMuthm pencil. 

Juiu/bfc traitor. 

tTuipnutpgun pearl. 

ifi-Pf. man. 

i/z»/>£ Ju?ub L to set (sun). 

•R»pt» bird (hen). 

JutpJhu body. 

Jutgu,n_fi L to struggle, to fight. 

ifutpnt-p clean, neat. 

uuq>pb L to clean. 

ifiuppnup-jiiJu cleanliness, purity, 

Jh/uMifiuqAM melancholic. 

Jk/uSb ink. 

JbfuutL pink. 

«*&* great; — u» P b L to esteem. 

Jhntuunp sinner. 

^if gentle, mild, soft. 

tibant. bee. 

&14L sin. 

Mr*.us& dead. 

Jbn^/ff to die. 

Jbmu,n_ metal. 

12 



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178 



Vocabulary. 



silk. 

Jtp+i L to reject 
A pig naked, bare. 
A P X near; — kl~j_ to come or 

to go near. 
Jk^kluy machine. 
*+ mist, fog. 
jpm$b only. 

JpmJp- simple, artless, innocent. 
jfm.% f mJlyt> at the same time. 
Jfm.mp\ together, in company. 
jpm, bm»i_ united. 

jpfm+kmi incident. 

Jffmm insect. 

ITff*rlf-4-* (*•<-) Mediterra- 
nean (sea). 

Jpfy*P+ broker. 

+ t"4f naeans. 

+» meat, flesh. 

Jjtup mind. 

JfP+ fruit. 

Jp$m^i_ to run into. 

j^Mfur scissors. 

jqmt-wir prompted. 

3lm, L to remain. 

«£«*{ labourer. 

j*m L mu(d^pt.% vice. 

V&*r wax, taper; — —4«#/_ taper- 
stand. 

JmmXui L to forget. 

jmupu*i_ to beg. 

tss* } beggar - 

i/fc^ to be cold. 

Jlnuikbi to contemplate, to think. 
tlmmgfi intelligent. 
JlnkppJ* intimate. 
tlmllri to enter. 
Jpu*iplr L to nod, to nap. 
ilpfmm smooky, sooty. 
jpguXusti prize. 

tfhm near; — u$imum imminent; 
— tr%tu L to come or to go near. 
tfhpuigyp aunt. 
Jbpbqpuyp uncle. 



juiqp-m^tuL conqueror ; victorious, 

triumphal. 
juaC-lu often, frequently. 



j-+L to tarry, *° loiter. 
jmymXk L to express, to reveal. 
j-5f— »f*r program. 
jm&bmp* sudden; all at once. 

j-V'f gufltv* fruity- 

j^tTT. successful; — f|_ to pro- 
sper, to succeed. 

jmfmp^. successor; following. 

jm,M-mifm$*m$i_ to advance, to im- 
prove. 

jmrnsmf/piff next. 

jm,m.[, L to gaze. 

7 —«4 bottom ; pavement ; ground. 

jmp+kl. t° respect 

j-ri story; roof; £*«mA»*4-A j-. r (r 
home. 

j~pl»kbr to attack. 

j~pJ--P It, proper. 

j~l> u,kl~*iim.l eternal. 

j^2T mtm k memory; > — as a me- 
morial, in momory of; — «*f«& 
monument. 

jPl*/jMr L to remind. 

j»f.ir«f* weary, fatigued. 

J*»Vz_ to be fatigued. 

j$*jumpMMug_ to be proud. 

«/«r hope. 

jmmgmmg UOOpOO, pewet. 

jm^nm^ L to be moved, to be 
touched. 

jma.m*0g_ tO hope. 
jmt-um^g hopefuL 

jmi-muslum,p—- p-p^h despondency , 

deception. 
j«i_«»^ in the hope of . . . 
jopp%h L to fashion, to make. 

%. 

%m§m first; firstly — j»fl^#«««-fty*.1» 
sentence; — w$»yp forefather. 

%uip*u*%l envy, jealousy. 

%mlu—mk L to offend, to insult. 

%uiiup%u t pki_ to prefer. 

Xiufump^. former. 

ItMf^cwitf. state, province. 

%— «/2m4 letter; — mmm*.% postoffice. 

*»«tfAz_ to loot. 

trM#«fMfM«nM*^ hare. 

lu*pp%f_ orange. 

%«•«- snip; — «*t boat; — «*^«A- 
f /b««n harbour, haven; — mm^km 



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Vocabulary. 



179 



captain ; — -»*$*£ sailor ; — «»«- 

—ftp crew. 
1»k*_ narrow. 

*k— arrow; — fy_ to throw. 
*»*/» sister-in-law. 

%kpp*qtf_ tO extol. 

%hph^ to forgive, to pardon. 

%t*pl i *y present. 

%bp$ t ib(_ to inspire. 

%tpm.iT pardon. 

%tpm in, within. 

%t^p- matter. 

t»(«ul»Mff loaf. 

Ifof/f painting, picture; — «■»* A/» 
description; character; — */_ 
to paint; — fo_ painter. 

% J2ul» like, alike ; — ftL to resemble. 

^£u#^u#4»«-^t_^ meaning. 



shot. 
%ju$%tua-up noted. 
%2$Ku ( >bl to perceive. 
*»•■/*» same; — £»4 even. 
!»»/» new ; — ««#ifr*.ni_p^t1i fashion ; 

— «•**!_ to repair, to mend. 
%»pt1* His or Her. 
l»m_uif uf^aft»fL£tf concert. 
i.«Lu» ? ^ to play on a musical 

instrument. 
r»c£ r gift, present. 
%mufiput^uM% sacred. 
%**-2_ almond. 

trtYwcnuff aim, purpose, end. 
%u/u*p$ut[tuTfutn. grocer. 
% U utj, L to sit down. 



jiuputp- week ; Saturday. 

£«»$ gain; — £$«•*» interesting; 

— Al to g am » to wm 
^u» t evening-dew. 
£iuquifo$u$n babbler. 
^u»%p- thunderbolt. 
2u»itk shirt. 
2utn-ui£_ clash, crash. 
£<auf many, much; — «£ a great 

many. 
2$umu*luou talkative. 
2*upJ-k[_ to move. 
£UYr»cJtr««( continuous, continually. 
2*q*—p sugar. 
jlrgm accent. 



ibpuitT silk-worm. 

ibput slice. 

2bV*tt__ to blush. 

ifokf to make. 

^A^_ bottle. 

lWd"i-dtL dazzling, flaring. 

tfutSfru'h clash. 

Z3&»0 chain ; ««i» — chainless. 

2hnp$uiQw[_ Ct&'L to thank. 

gbnp^k^ to grant. 

£#»7&?/uft. steam-boat. 

l-ff* vapour. 

Z*iu>i t° twinkle. 

2-qnp-pP- flatterer. 

2jf-i"y market. 

2**% dog. 

L*t%2_ breath ; — —*%lri_ to breathe. 

2*1-2*"% lily. 

1»l# shadow; pomp; honour. 

lt>ibL% rustling (of leaves). 

2Pgu»fu*j**.pfii% walk, roaming. 

2Pt'-i*k»" gown, robe, dress. 

2Pt.PL to wander, to walk. 

t-P^T. magnificent, fair. 



"tt spirit. 

-IP lamentation; — kp+ tragedy; 

elegy. 
"thvL cluster, bunch of grapes. 
"n% spine, back-bone; — m+*y$* 

-if*/* salutation. 

**f*t%lrg_ to salute, to hail. 

** style, manner. 

-I* strength, force. 

w£_ no; — t^L nothing. 

*lf*—p sheep. 

»ML»f.A-£_ to water. 

**ftq.u*p the golden age. 

*u\b*o&bi to gild. 

-«kt golct 

»*a» limb, branch. 

numiuju web ; — -»-i weaver. 

**m^*A policeman. 

*tf(t$uuu* ocean. 

ntaututu^np rhyme, poem. 

**,%*» Aut/u tramp. 

-*igt foot. 

i»PP orphan. 

m P+ worm. 

12* 



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180 



Vocabulary. 



m etb son. 
-pP- calf. 
m e p-(u0ui»iXb) vine. 
"P'l^L to decide, to fix. 
m P nt[u*/h womb; belly. 
mamutu$i_ to thunder. 
mp^uit^ how much? 
»P* game, prey; — «*«/«•»$ game- 
keeper; — »/»«■ hunter. 
"■•if/. *° want. 

•«-f tfi. t0 direct, to aim, to correct. 
ag.^ut camel. 
*iL.%iM/it*t-Plii.% vanity. 
niXhl—i to have. 
m*.!^**^ to listen, to hear. 
*«-2_ late. 

bilk.—* inflated, swollen. 
uuuui%—l_ student. 
nuuM-tT study; — uu*puA college. 
L 8tL teacher. 



««.«*&£_ to eat. 
jvLfuff. adze. 
M-ptufu glad. 

3. 

tuip naughty, evil, bad. 
i^flpt^L *° torture, to torment. 
jmM+uiqu.%0 exceeding, excessive. 
i!V dry; — *»«•»/. to wither. 
l»Hgmu,ui%{> quadruped. 
l^ma-mp needy, indigent. 
^gJ^q*st a %kf to excuse. 
Ij&w^ admirable, fine, charming. 



u^utfutta palace. 

«««»$ watch, time; — ^ for a 

little while. 
1u,$u&fk L to demand, to require. 
iw&l_ to keep, to observe. 
mutquttntufutum.% imploringly. 
^uj/Pfii-l, hurt, crash; report (oi 

a gun). 
»t»ijbk guard, page. 
$iusftusn. bright. 
mgugiRuu condition. 
m^uuL^mli inn; — m^hm inn-keeper. 
t^iulifp cheese. 
tt^u»2*nlrf to adore. 
«j«f£«i«Y«Afr£ to defend, to protect 



u t u*£mo%ku f , minister, officer. 
ugujuf pope; grand-father. 
«yo*M.a«<. old woman. 
mtum.^l»i_ to lie down. 
■yiMMi wall. 

^ to happen. 

*i* youngster. 

>%e shroud. 

>*. slice; — **£««**_ fork. 



juuiltki^ to answer. 



T 

■yivtftfr^ to surround. 
^uimtrputq$r war; — ^ to fight. 
tyuuff^cf punishment ; — 4/»^ to 

suffer. 
t^usmpL. honour. 
tyiMM^fr/i picture. 
u^tufTCtum. cause, reason; — «#/iu»i»£/_ 

to reason. 
ufuuttTmLpftLl histoi*y. 
muim^tf proper. 
t^uitniq-utiT balcony. 
ttfMfMfitft.ttfiftt.Mflr toot-stool. 

ufuimut-ir^ tO honOUl*. 

ufutuinLtrif, (== fttttfrn.) reverend (= 

Rov.)." 
fffMf*>fff.^Mfi» window. 
•f|Mf«tM.£r^ to tear. 
u^tatu$$»t^iuptri_ to shelter. 
utuiu$puiu$nki to prepare. 
«jMff danse; — ttf<Mf»«.£«# ball. 
««Mf/iMftf|^£_ to be occupied with. 
tffMffMffffV^ to fatten. 
■MMf^ittiVt. offer, gift, prize. 
tttMf^ff^ simple. 

ajMf/inl (== 0|.) mister (= Mr.). 
«jMffi«i-0Mf4fV/ to contain. 
uttupuiui.tr/ to blame. 

ufUipuiuityuAnt.p-pt.% duty. 

•ffMff«f£ra_ garden; */-»* b— — kin- 
dergarten. 

vuusputfiatuuMu gardener 

■ffttfttiff^u" I must, I owe. 

iuujputmLp-fuJu defeat. 

tutvpuig debt. 

«/Mfj»Yttf{*V£_ to encircle, to com- 
prehend. 

u^kpTCui/uou eloquent. 

«I^A-ttf( wasp. 

««{««•«-£_ nightingale. 

ujqfuJi copper. 

«jf|/&«tMfttM/ti bronzed, copper-co- 
loured. 



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Vocabulary. 



181 



«vn fe l pepper. 

ujqutHp turbid, muddy. 

ufi.wti jilate. 

«Y»i. tail. 

*ifnput navel. 

ufnuufftfi^ doll. 

uiipuA»g coquetry. 

uf..iu^ crown; wreath, garland. 

iifuiqutpkplff to fructify. 

ujutmjut walk. 

ufuinuq^ fruit. 

ttfututft^ to walk. 
•Vf *£/_ to get rid of. 

A> 

£u,qu,j^ mill. 

£u,%us L to try, to endeavour. 
fuXuMukp diligent, active. 
fhpj* lever; warm; hearty. 

£bp$fb m.u,%q. deVOUt. 

fnt-P water. 
fph to water. 
£i>{<»«- waterfowl. 

IK 

«-««$ way, road; — ibp<fj pioneer. 
n.™^ vulgar, popular. 



»u$$iRu% frontier, limit; definition. 
uuAutp comb. 

nuiuutf,// intense, excessive. 
utupbusti blackbird. 
tu,pun.iuq.l,% fearful, terrible. 
"-"tpbl. barber. 
ubqu/h table. 
uttT threshold. 
uh%huM^ room. 
ukXh^utufhui chamberlain. 
»tp cream. 

ubftmb, to learn, to study. 
«*«- black. 
-kp love. 

aPtuiftfif to come to oneself. 
,ul»pui\u$£ darling, beloved. 
ufip—jivtftf to win (by love.) 
»fa>k L to love, to like — t dear. 
"tc^Pt lovesong. 
.,(>p n *X pretty, lovely. 



ufrptn heart. 

-fuuMf_ mistake, fault. 

u^piiiu^u/it primitive, original. 

»h»hi_ to begin. 

..iwufutpb vain, boastful. 

uirfMjLw taffeta. 

u % n *.lq. nurture, nourishment. 

•As annual bOX. 

uH^talf nightingale. 

vmufafl, dreadful, horrible. 

»»i_ famine; — u^t.^ hungry, 

starving. 
«»4»P kp he used to. 
unfcpnufJ (tuh custom. 
un 4rl'L to learn. 
»—-1_ dear. 
unup sword; sharp. 
$mupp saint, holy. 
uuLpiC coffee. 

uufu/L%k^ to kill, to murder. 
mufuinXtuL to threaten. 
uufutuuiLup servant. 
uuftuub^ to wait, to expect. 
««Y«"""-£A maid-servant. 
mnXtutnuM% greaves. 

umuihuii to get. 

-utnputif_u*u inferior; — u»Qm& sub- 

junctive. 
»uf»t.bp shadow. 
»pu*$ drawing-room. 
upmJgiin witty. 
»ppu*qpbf to correct. 
»ppu»nu,% sacred, holy. 
upptuuibqfr sanctuary. 
"ptk'Ht rascal. 
upTCu$u$ntJti coffee-house. 
U if,»j,b L to console. 
n fn_b L to spread. 
t[ gu*%iu*0miS admiration. 
i^uAj^bJ, excellent ; — # wonder 



teiP tiger. 

{u,ju fear; — ^—i_ to fear. 
ihu/uTfu/ki end. 
4uilu0%b L to frighten. 
tfui^bi^i ancient, old. 
4"*qc. to-morrow. 
i^V-d l° n g since. 
ifut^utn.ut^uit merchant. 
jutT&un^ wares, goods. 



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182 



Vocabulary. 



feffwf fierce. 

farrf wild. 

t/mgrfkiJIf minute. 

fusii Hjtiti cage. 

t/mmAm^ chicken. 

{uim-*^. gun-powder. 

^M»«» bad, vile j — m$mkm weak 

of sight. 
4m*At L to waste, to lavish. 
i^f—tUP curtain. 
4~P1- rose; — *ty — bush. 
<f/»^ trained, expert. 
jutp+m-ikm school-master. 

fmp+iHpmm School. 

i~P* wages, pay; — -«t*/_ to 

reward. 
fuipmt-+m1 bird (cock). 
juipmLfiL to treat, to deal with. 
4?*P m hair, tresses; — "ikcv 

hair-dresser. 
jk^ut%A% generous. 
jk$u»ifc—m.»t.p-fri.% majesty. 
t/kpm^MimXut(_ to return. 

i|Jbjr. (s=s ^/muyuumu-fr^) Dr. (d0C- 

tor. 
ifkpuip^mt. coat. 
i£sjh mt ~' r remembrance. 
4*r***L to lift. 
£*/.£ end; — /fr last; — fl^ the 

latter ; — "»/v- twilight; — -»—^ 

to give an end. 
jkpLmmmtX upper room; woman's 

gallery in churches. 
4k»T stone, rock. 
Mug wound, cut. 
i^p-fumpp colossal, gigantic. 
fb+wli water-spout, jet. 
4£in sorrow, grief. 
Y£*y<«fu*ir romantic. 
itp-py* surgeon. 
^pun-»pk^ to wound. 
ffusplr L to pay. 
£ty«t limpid. 

ft— loss; — ««$««/» hurtful. 
jzmiu4pmi.pfii.1i suffering, grief. 
fmkS sublime; — ««£»$» sub- 
lime in thought. 
i[mmut^ confiding; sure; — A/_ to 

confide, to trust; — m^p-fiaJh 

confidence, trust. 



^1 danger. 

iel>»itl_ to miss, to go aside. 

4e*P* brush; pencil. 



mma&mui anxiety; crisis. 
mm W brother-in-law. 
mmqmimp- talent. 
»-»/_ sister-in-law. 
»«■»/_ to give. 

m—fam—4 board; — •»«!»* floor. 
H"^ 1 still, yet. 
»«*/>/_ to carry. 
-- l^f roof. 

■m«W pear; — **»£ — tree. 
—^"^ to fell down, to over- 
throw. 
mmm-tuu^tatifgi affliction, distress. 

mampmputmy. Unfortunate. 

nutput^k^ to spread, to extend. 
■"■vA year. 

«•«•/»!• element; — «vf«fli elemen- 
tary. 
mug warm, hot. 

»*2_ place; — 1» instead of; — A 
"■■•I. to yield, to give way; 

— £ mi%k%u. L to take place; 

— here and there. 
**bmk1 l u* g < bhi_ to inform. 
»kqk\mA.p-[n.% information. 
wkuu»4 sort, kind; species. 
»kmiupu/b scene, spectacle. 
«£«<£ sight, look. 

mtpku leaf; — -#"* fall. 

<«£/» sir; lord, owner; — «w%/ 

Sire ; — »*.tr«»4««i» Lord's, do- 

minical. 
wfiaatrpfQutu universal. 
»t>liF b lady, Mrs. 
"A*- day, day-time. 

mfumup Sad. 

wfiipm^l»^mt.% dolorous. 
mfw/f weak, feeble. 
mnuy boy, child. 
"*♦*£. to plant. 
<n%» P k% director. 
wiyutpfa printer. 
wiununpn^p-frili printing. 
<n^l_ to print. 



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Vocabulary. 



183 



m»t.% house, home. 
ufpumuf sad, sorry. 
u»oh feast, festival. 



puaT flock. 
/»»««£ moment. 



£■»* low; vile. 

S u,Jlu£ land, continent; — -ufo 
terrestrial. 

3*0* night. 
S u/b s net, net- work. 
filpH day-time. 
s Hu,fj, s joyful. 
jjhgnmp rags. 
s % S muq_ watering-pot. 
8*14 flashes. 
jj»H_ bull. 
/f-uuf rod, stick. 
fjnuput cold. 
S pni.tr L to disperse. 
4r^«A shawl. 
^o^ dew. 



4>-l-ltL to fl©e> to run away. 

^,utpjuutiu^ui% fugitive. 

i" u tl/'L to cleave to. 

^■WL lustre, splendour ; — Ai_ to 

shine; — »«-*» bright, shining; 

— *»i lightning; — —mwfkg^ to 

lighten. 

ipuym WOOd. 

$uin-m»lrp ambitious. 
+-"* g!ory. 
tpuipiumhi to dispel. 
fusjiuq> desire. 
'P^IVF hat, bonnet. 
fb-uy bridegroom. 
tpbmnup feather. 
'tuJt'L to be pulled down. 
f%utn.&L_ to ask for, to seek. 
»t»p-»l»ti storm. 
tfwfu-^ufpA mutual. 



fnfuutpfr for, in exchange for. 
f n p*ki_ to change. 
^"VS street. 

ipn^nfum-Ppuh change, trans- 
formation. 

$»gp small. 

jUi_^«««£«ftr diligent. 

ipnuhf^ bunch, bouquet. 

<t—-l_ thorn.. 

ijfL to blow. 

+n-h L to spread. 

fufitufJ- mat. 

jpp%»t-P-fiL.% salvation, ramsom. 



•P m ltL to walk, to step. 

.^af^u/lmy priest. 

^uiqutg city, town; — w^km 
alderman ; — w$ylrmuiput% Guild- 
hall; — tujtup polite. 

4>w*lBr sweet, delicious ; — —pwrv 
kind, gentle. 

4—Jp wind. 

^guiXiu^ ruler. 

4P*t_ brave; — « M /*r A £. to encour- 
age. 

j>T stone. 

j,u,pni^ sermon; — *£_ to preach; 
— I*L preacher. 

^$ujjus[u vinegar. 

^hn.u»ifj>^ niece. 

^bn-ttpq-fi nephew. 

j>trptufyuiiint.p3-{ii3» grammar. 

4>& rancour, ill-will. 

jpP-ufr flax, linen. 

#tp- nose. 

^\u/uu»i_ to sleep. 

•efyvi. delicate, tender, pretty. 

4fyp sister. 

^ni.% sleep ; «**» — awake, sleepless. 

.£«<«( purse ; — «*$«•«» pick-pocket. 

4tpf>»utn%lru(j Christian. 

^pdm^f, priestess. 

O. 

o^tiuM^mh assistant. 
ofi»fr^ to help, to aid. • 
of.**.** ^ m '7^'£_ to profit. 



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Google 



184 



. Vocabulary. 



•f"—k—e useful. 

•t air, weather. 

•P*-k box. 

•ftki.m.1 lodging, dwelling. 

•i snake, serpent; — mu^myu 

winding, serpentine. 
•*Ajs collar. 

•TCmiM. SOap. 

•m—t stranger, foreigner. 
•F day j — £ every day. 



•f^V law. 

•rb»e* young lady, Miss. 

o^^a.^^ dying, in the pangs 

of death. 
-P&^L. to bless. 



$fi»rffc florin. 
^psmhmkf^it French. 



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V. Vocabulary. 

B. English-Armenian. 



A. 

a, an «£i •#£&, tT'i 
able 4««!"t2_ t 4Jfrn.i»^«M«t 

abSUrdity u,\$nbqnuP^f, u %t 

accident u/muiui^u/p , *«{»£■■»&• 
account <««^A«-i 

tO aCCUSe f*fpvuuinuAjbf_i tfbqiuypbii 
tO act £»/»«•£/_» ^utpna.pf_t 

action «/.»»/»*-. — »^L/Jp<i 

active «f npbniXbtuj . Iibp^np^ui^tuh t 
actOl' q.bpiuuui% t 

adjective «*»£««$ •»!» t 
to admire ty—i"*^ 
to adore «j««»£«#ifr^ t bp^pt^u$^.bfjt 
to advance jmn.iufu»%tui_ % j«*«.«#^ 
fus^ P jb L . i n _ $«,i,^f , 

advice fapujut. funp$»i_p^t 

tO advise fapuiu$bg_ $ funp^nupq. utut[_t 

affair ^«*/^i-«r, ^npS-% 
afternoon jkui/Ag,, jb*. Jftiopkfi, 

age {«»»««(. muipfe. ij.uipt 
agO *>n-u$f_. long — 2.u»u$nti0 t 

agreeable <•»*%{£ * 

air Of.* sY^cutncrf. QbptfutpuAtpi 

alike fc*yfc, ti&At 
alive »7£ 9 ikl^uSbfit 
all /»«/"/*• ««!M,. not at — /iluu.. 
— of a sudden ,7*^071*, ^„„ 

alley *t««-»«-^. Iippnt-^fn 
almond fc-t.^. — tree fc^to/t t 
almost tpbptt 
alone «M«.o#l»^/it» , *ifruaii»$ubt 
aloud pwpAptaAayfii < 
alphabet uypnupkli 



always «#£««« ^tt&u«fy«tfys 
ambitious ^•u«.t««£|M 
amusing ipoub^n^^fi^t 
ancient ^qbjpy tyl t 

and fr«- , arc t 

angel ^pb^mtu^t 

answer t^uttnutufu$$$% 1 

ant Jpff,tXt 

any .£««l^ t£, ^^ *£, «&»« «£t 

apartment jtupfmpmd-fiit t 

apple iuh&»p. tree — -itys 

to apply tfiJb^t 
apron ^»»^1#«^j 
architect TCu»pn$iuf.tui^bmt 
arithmetic ^««-u»p«Ajrf.p/^_i,s 
arm /*u#y«t_$ . — chair Pfrfht-p-nn. . 

— S ff^M 

army ftufircvf 1 

to arrest Abpputfaib^t 

to arrive J-mtiUiib^ {u»«l/&g_ t 

art utpmubum . — ist i[.kfmpi,i_bm~ 

muiump t 
article J«»7-» JoipuLmk. $u*tn»uui&t 

to ask 4u*pjjhb L . — charity »£»|i~ 

Uni-P- fruit fu%tf.pbtt 
aSS 4"£_» «»i-i*#lr««»Jt 

assent $**!.—% nup-fctXi 
to attack ju$plmtiln_t 
aunt ^optugypy itopuqtmjpi 

author <*^u#$, tfiumbliturfpt 

autumn <■*£»«.% s 

to await «#«Y«««fr/_» #&«*»# • 



back f«L%<»( 
bad «ft£_» jfp* 



B. 

btttbut 



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186 



Vocabulary. 



balcony t^u$—2!t ut ^ %% 

ball *y •»/»«« £«»lif.t» ♦ f iL.%m . f.if#j.««f i 

bank ^km—ifr • f./><m/2u«>a&.l>. — note 

barber mu$ifipf^_t 
banner ?/>•£_* 
barren «»J&«.£_i 

battle tfw ^unniuiRup m , dSupm 9 tyM#~ 
mkpm^Tt 

to be £fwt_* 

bear ««i»£« 

beast faw^Mflfi 

to beat tblkij nuipXku 

beautiful t^sh* 

bed ««tr( M ^i At^« to go to — 

u[ iu n.^£_* — rOOm %%fiumt%kut^ t 

bee Aqmu, — hive +kp-m^% 
beer +-pkfa*.pt 
before «»«.£**., «*«.««£« 

to beg £*t l^L* •*■ A. # — f° r J5r *— 
r-- , L . —gar *n,i-pm. d M% 

to begin »k m tu — ner •t« A »»4 » 

%mpt$t-u I 

belfry {MAf«vf «•*»«£• 
to believe $«*.«m«-^i 
Bible u«««»--«.*u^«t.i»^, y. (= 

bicycle &*—%}*- * 

big *"»*•!»« 

billow (•{««(> «tAp« 

bird p-m-t»**i —of prey fAz*"- 

4*r — 
birth **»*.%£ , *u# f «i.iT. — place 

bit 4«t«/»« 

bitch ^-»*« 

to bite l*ml%k[j 

bitter f.«*«.l»« # 

black •**.. — bird ««#/i^u»J. — 

board ("£**-) tpwvwfuwsuQ * 
to blame «^«*/mt»i_^_t 
to bless •¥•<**£_• 
blithesome q*»-—pPt 
to bloom +&&tu t-ihtu 
blue («M«y«^«tt 
blunt p**-P-* 
body JtupJfftii 
bonnet 4>&q3jp* 

book f Afl£ | ArnkmSk ♦ — CaS6 f /»«"- 

f.t*ptu% i dmmk%muf.utpuA» — keep- 
ing mn&tpi0liuaimt.p-l>i3i • — 

seller +p mi b?* u ' m - % 



born Wf**^" • was — Mb*»*. t 
to borrow #"£• a»«M|_s 
bosom *»ji 

both kp^mu^k mg_t 

bottle ihu «/■»«-•» (r « 

bower uutpifcflkut t 
box «rl»«Mvi.f . •P'hutln 

boy «fi*^_» *»w 

branch *£<-£_» »«*»« 

brave •*«»£» "*rA* — vy — •■.^■A • 

to bray q^-^u 

bread ^«*^< 

to break {•f»j£g_, — down *»«»- 

breakfast !»«•£»■•»*««£/ 

breast £»*•£.*) fm-|4jt* 

bride ^«"/»« . — groom +k**y t 

bridge ^mJkuffj 

bright «fl«y£«m.» 

to bring p*/»*/_« 

broad i*yk* 

broom —»-ki_* 

brother kqpyp. — in-law uikkp^ 

brow ^Mf(ru*Mit 
brown p-*»-frt 
bubble «yct£«»4« 

tO build Imm^-gmSkku ££*&£_• 
bull S ma -L' — OC ^ C jm*.mpwf t 

to burn w^L* i^^L 1 
but p«w *%ffl' t 
butcher Jk~+»pk « 
butter (ufMif « 
butterfly PAl""*Af • 
to buy f**£.« 



cage ^utl'^-u'f i 

calf $*pP-t 

to call 4«A£*£j k m d?L % 

camel •«-t-»« 

canary-bird ^k^Am»k^% 

cannon px^mk^p-t 

cap fr«4« 

Capital tfiyptqpwqutg • tf-fiuiKuq-int-fi,* 

f.*^f mm. *{i t £«f f tffir t 
Captain i««»*-u#Mj£r««f. ^t§tppupun^kin t 

care $»*.» AA»««£ . — ful $»$.«#*•«- , 

fu%utilm$a* leSS M'i'^aft 

carpenter ^A*-" 1 
castle v^*<«4< 



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Vocabulary. 



187 



cat i u 

CaUS6 iquimlCutn. » n.tum » 

to cease t—tetL 1 
ceiling Xkq»i%t 
century f—pt 

certein "*"y+ • — ly w«»««-^/t». t 
Chamber «M»fr«#4» j*np$pq.uipuA* . 
— lain ulriib^tuu^kut ^ 

chain zffr"y • — less u»% — t 

chair «"P»«.i 

to change ^-/ub/j 

character t» J«»/iu»^|» ♦ «/»**/«.. 

cheap utt^taiin 

cheek uy$nt 

cheese «j««ty/i« 

cherry ^fr«.«*«#. — tree — bufit 

chicken £««-fr««*f t 

Child Ju*h»*-4, utquy. — hood Jiu%~ 

Christian jipfiwAbuy . — ity 
church H^i^jiti +—•!** 

City J>u»quy>t 

class 7 «»«» ♦ k u 'l"t • — mate <y.««»«~ 

fX^hpt 

Clear J—nm^^ £tyut, npnjj 

clever $i»«Y»«#«^«t, jubgwjfit 
to climb tfiunjru if-it*»-tu 

Clock (•*-—£) J-wJmmyn. ©' — <f «/ Jp t 

cloud «»«/Sji 

club ««fJi»t-«^, U-^P* 

COat i[hpu$p^nut 

COCk ifoutntun t fun$titu»L t 

coffee «»«-f»rt\ — house uptfuip$$jk t 

COld £nLput % tqUtq_l 

COllege numnutfhiupu»% t 

colour 7t/*'» — s tv°2_* 

to come f-«»£_» 

to command 4r t — n ?j"L t 

compliment p—pbut 

concert tf«cu'f.af^ttftrf.£-tts 

to conclude «t»t.«7f»»*|_t 

to condemn q-uiuttutmutpmbu 

condition 4b*">ki f-0««./ty«A f tyay^ 

«AAt 
conf eder ati on i—pui fo » ^.p-fti.* t 

Conference q.bm»q$u%mfmnp4nupq. I 

contented *»<t 

to Contract iquyiiut%€uqpbgj {urn*. 
uttuinbit 

to convene q,*t.ituipmi-l»u 
to convince <t»«ft^^t 



COOk fun^trnpuipi 

cool 5^»^f_t 
corn —pJmfet 
corner •*1»j£«-t»t 
corpse *£» fA«"f * 

to Correct »a-*_qb/_f mpp.utq.plru 

count {»«/» ♦ {<»££«- 1 
country bptfir* 
courier *m*.p$mAjjuf t • 
court wppauufe . — yard p-b » 

COUSin 4opaqpnpnpii.il t 

cow 4 w i s 

cream **|» » 

CUb P-«J-I*uu, bnpfriXt 
CUp q-WLtufl t 

to curse u»ty*fyj 
curtain t[wptuq.nipi 
cymbal b%&mwjt 

D. 

daisy Jtupq-utpuimbuin^bt 
damp fanhuia-t 

dance «f«»/». to — — hgj 
danger ^-A** 

dark «/»«-f?-» [uuii-tup. %ubiP mtqotnt 

date p-*i.u»bu»u. utpjiuu. — -tree 

auilpwi.tfi»l» t 

daughter q.*t.»—p. — in-law $~p» • 
day •/»• — time £&/■&{• to 

dead J**.™* % 
to deal fufpnufiu 
dear «A/»fyA- »««-f - « 
death «/s*$* 
debt wtupuip* 

deep A»jt(M.l4)t 

to defend w-i$nwm,ubu 

delicious $«m/&^* 

tO delight qmL€uplTu*jjihk[j 

desert uAmmmin^ luJuyft t 

desk q,ptumbquiut 

to despise -fc—pq.bij wp$tutllup$bLj 

dessert mmm%m r bpi 

to destroy 4*r *•«■»*»*£_» f*t*U 
devil frfr*-t 

deVOUt 9bpJbn.tuuq.t 
diamona wq.u»Jwuq. t 

dictionary putn.tupiu%t 
to die Jkm%^ij 
difficult q.o***-uipt 



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188 



Vocabulary. 



diligent £wVM*£f, </y»««£«A« 
dinner *«»£« 
director mLopfrx 

dirty wnmnmt 

disciple ««#j«^fy«oi 

to discover f «*A4/j 

disgrace i»u/^«*«n^, , u.$ibp % 

dish wtTuXt 

to dispel tfruipuiuiku 

disposition /A «««-"/» «i./0^-t#, «>jt<««. 

Jtuq.pmuP^t% t 

distant {&«.»*., ^6«.«<t-«ft 

doctor P<tpzH» t[tupq-wylani 

doe ujjhksufi^t 
dog ^«i-1bi 

doll ttfnuu/pfifi t 

door f.«<.«Li 

to double (/■(if(«MyuMf»{)£2j 

dozen fyf ««t«««lb&«ff t 

drama Pmmbpm^m^t 

to draw jE—filj t^ mt kff^L} 
to drink k»J^u 
duke f«^«» 
dull pP—Jjiui, 

to dwell /i^/^^t 

E. 

each t ,u p u tg ut ' tt t£ i -r « 

ear «ij«*i»£« 

early ( —%*$.& t 

earth */>^/», $» t . f £«,/,*,. __ (iUa ke 

kptypwgupif- 1 

easy ?£<-f/&< 
to eat hlw^i 

education Y""""A"7 , °'4 JM -/ ! ^/ ii -*' » 
^pp-m^p-p^t 

egg t-H-WP, *««-« 
elder fyfy* 
eldest Lpfyu*f.iyLi 
eloquent tukp-^mpuXi 
emotion «j»«"«/««.2««-/7^«.l s 
emperor f<wf< 
empire ^-pm^pp^h t 
enemy pg'uiJfit 
enough jKfM.(cufu»fc) t 
enterprise ifr****/^ , £»/*&* 
essay **«*«. * 
estate f««{ff«-u»4-< ' 
to esteem Ml—pb^ 
eternal jusa-/nub%ts*4»sshi 



even ut%m.mtTt 

evening fi f H-^. good — /•««/»£ 

every «■#***. . — where — «<-/»4i • 

evil jTf • 

ewe Mf^pi 

ewer —»mJLX , tiftf 1 

exactly *£?^<. , uJl^p^iu t 

to examine ({"wO^to*!.* ^«/>- 

example of^i«f < 
excellent m^V*^* £"*fa* 
exception pm,g**m.—-PI»i.%x 
exercise ^«»$«i.i.j , £—p+f-Pfti.% 9 

*yusp$aui^u*%ui.pfiL.% (f.aaf»yij t Jimp*. 

ULunltupn* 
expert ^*«/»tA» ^Mgiiwf £«», ^utpiukisil 
tO extol %kppmqki_, 

eye —i4>* —brow j^V 

P. 

face ?£<&, ty£r.n 
fair ±#A«« t , i^zhH' 

faitll ^LIHW^. ful ^LIHMIH. 

fame £u#j^i«M. f ^M.^u*(t 
famine ««^s 
famous ^«««(fitt*t.A««^t 

fashion ir«/t«cri£i.««.^^t.tr 9 uituputaj 

fate p—q»p * 

father ^«^/»» — in-law ««A£/» f (&««. 

— rw 
fatigued jn^fci**, lumXfwk. to be 

fault Pkpm*-pfn.m t ufuui^t 

to fear fwfrX—u. 

feast M£«/^. «Mu)ti 

feather ^«"»l/h 

fever ftytTs 

few #fc,» a — .£«A£ «^.* 

fez ||r«t *ik*™rk % 

field fLM«2M>f u»pmt 

to find f«M2_» 

fine ^^»*«5L» fkjm%li» 

to finish iP>jf^^ij ipwjhku 

fire ^/»**'4i $**-p» to — {/"*( c^^L 1 

fireman ^pn^pmm^t 

fish i»i-(* — erman «tyl»«/tMi 

fit JUMpJuip . Ul/utStUnfttttTt 

flatterer i-q^mpP* 

nOOr ututfuuius^ustltub- 1 



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Vocabulary. 



189 



to flourish busrffi^i 

to flow ^"»/'£_* P--"(>^U 

flower bu*qfi%. to — ^—litij — 

- garden S-ui^nu t 
flute upp%a.t 

foot -uift . — step ^buig t 
to forbid «f>¥A|*z.' 
forefather umlumtmjp . 

tO forget JhnXmfj 
fork u^unnu$n.u^utnj 

form Ahi-i ^kptytupuiiyi . to — ^^«- 

to forsake /9-nnni.^j hphuk Atg-b^j 

fortunate pntptput^t 
fortune ptunn., ^*upuu$nuf9-^L% i 
fount, — ain «#£#»^*.fr, £/»u#$i»« 

foX utanufcut 

fragrant pn».pbn_x 

free «»/•*• « «#/»A««^ t munim > 

to freeze uu,n.pu 

fresh p«#/»tr, £»£! 

to frequent ju»Te—ful[_t 

friend pwpbl[u$J*. — ship — »*.*. 

tO frisk fttinfutut[_, atumQuib^t 
fruit Ufuinuqj uipn-uiufy> « 
future uiu(iun.ufl f t$itntua.uij t 

G. 

gain £«*{. to hu 

garden uftupmkn^. — er u/utpmpi^. 

ututh c 
gate tlbb tf-nun. t 

gay nnu^pfrt 

general uopwubtn* phn.^tuitnt.p t 

gently Jbn»r K ntl_)i 

giant ^"Icy » 

girl *»qlfrtt t 

to give *nu»i_ » 

glad nupuiftit 

glass puttfiuL , uttuuityft t 

glorioUS ftun.un.npt 

glory #«»*.£ i 

glOVe P-utp-imtuu , ifriciriry t 

eoat «■«/* . he — unfutunj 
'od H«f««»«.M*6- 1 

goddess 7Aj««-#. 
gold ««$A« 

good p—ph m i£k* P'Tftfi* a — 
deal £"«»» «£*» ^*fy_ •£• 



to govern tyutn-utftupb^ — er $«««- 
"■•"ffr — ment tu*n.utjuipmt_^ 

gown ipfu$un.bum> night — *A^~ 

putunn t 

grammar ^^wp«L^ L li 
grand .»*, <«,«»(«».,, —father 
«1 ««Y • — mother $u»ty » 

grape fttmqnq_t 

grass fr*u$n* 
grave u.bpb nUbA t 
great dbb* 

gl'een tymuu*^, m^wm $uijpu»l[ l 

grey *»|»£« 

to grind u*nu»i_t 

grocer viuutpu»ifu$tftun.t 

ground n.bmp% . — less uA,^f»9l » 

to grow «.^ iL . pijuhj 

gWllty J uAt d u "- n Py »*jpwm.npbt 

gypsy ^«»- » 

H. 

hail Ji»/tJ«tt#». tO tnbqtuf_> 

hair «/z»^_t ^j»» tftupun • 

half 4^«. — dead t(puu,Jbn_. — 

made ^fu^mtnutp » 
hamlet ^4-^» n-fiunu*^ 
hand ^fr*t^ . — in — ,lputjtu,% t 
handkerchief p-wfipuut^ t 
handle f»p» fr/»«»A»a.f«»£_t 
handsome pwpbAbt. t 
to hang Jm#A*^£_* 
to happen ■Y«t»«»«i»^£_t 
happy bpfu/iifiQ, pu»pbpu»uutt 

hard Jm»/i£/»» ufp%n. f n-dnuutp, n-ui~ 
J-uiu . ly ^tuqfri. , n.J-numpuit. % 

to hasten tpnuf^ui^ utiCu*ufm*pbf_t 

hat t/ibntyp, u-gfuuip^ 

to hate uMmbu 

head 7^«-A» • — ache m^tmnun. * 

to heal p^zi^U p-'-^-^u 

to hear |**jl« 

heart ufo™* 

hearth n»«-/»u#4, •*~^» 

heaven *f»f /tyf» » 

heavy bu*hpt 

heifer bpflujj 

help Ofi»nt.p-pLu, tO — ' o^trfy_. 

help yourself ^pmJbn^t 
helve f»pt 
hen <««»«.t 



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190 



Vocabulary. 



hero tt'-s utt ^ * 
high p*upXpi 

hill pgma.pt 

to hinder *"/■?//£/_» km ufut^k^t 
history *)<■*«» J2»t-/9-/bAJir t 

home mmt.% | p%tsautitir^ut% juff t 
^uyplAfet 

honour ufwmp*- . to — m^mmma.tt^% 

— able uguimmuutpJ-utLx 

hope «/•/«• tO — jmLmutfj^ — ful 
jmLuutjJtjj. — leSS utyymt 

horse *fi* 

hospital fyuu&y.uAtmfi i 

hour J-fiTi 

hoUSe uinaJltx 

hue kpt-it}, IpijA, fry*" 
human ifoptrfuyfim . — ity tihtp^^. 
^p-puX i 

humble pnAu*p$, g u*bx 
hungry u»mop-ffx 

tO hunt mpmtuij, — er npunpt^ i 



I. 



ice <"»il t 
idea futquitfuupt 
idle *$/£_• «Af»|^« 
ill ^....tlf., 

immediately wMpft—nk-x 
immortal —%&$% 
imperial 4<^«frj>««f «& t 

tO improve ju»m.utfutiitui_t 

inhabitant p^^ttL* 

ink«/*/wli f p-ufcuyt. — stand 4«»~ 

qtutfiup l 

innocent u*htlbq_ f J^utJpmx 

insect Jpfiumt 

instructive ^pu$^»A^ij foPfe, 

[uputuiuiljusli t 

intelligent *r—-gb) —-ib*r* 
intention JS»—fp—.p-tii%t 

interesting £«f^tf««ii, ^bmu^pgpm^ 

i^x 

intimate MakpptTx 
to invent fr—pk L * 
invitation {/■««. 6pi 
iron tpkftup-i 
island fff£* 
ivy p-q^ij 



jewel ffat $ **•!$» • — er —tjuifwm. % 

joke ^utmaat^, mpuifuouna-P-fitA t 

journey *-M£«/tj.m.p/fc4. , ir. 

joy -.puip*-^p-pi\, a %^mt.p-pJmt 
judge tf—mtuunp* tO — q.s»nk[_x 

just »^ t , "Tf*f> *&?-• *&£*-• 
— as well *?£»/• *y*-gk- «*£_« 

justice wpi[-u$pin-P-fiaJti) fipuu.$nJit£X 

K. 

key p-iL-i^x 

to kill ««fl«#%*fr L , Jmpp-ku 

kind «»£«««{. j>—qgp (mpmpy) % 

kindergarten Muit%i»i$ympttik}»i_t 
king p-utftt*~i»p . — dom —•«.«. 

to kiss $«»i£«i-|»*/_, «y«#^^i 

to kneel SXptu^pk/j m 

knife ^.«A«»4« 

to knit ^puuk/j 

to knock p u§ lt t, 'L\ — er ^4« 

to know "fu&fcuiij, ttfiut%u$i_t 



labour —tylu—tmutiftf x 

lad Muh^. — «*.{* 
lady **Hlht —frp—-$frx 

lamb f «M.fc(*c.f) x 

lame t«*2.» 

lamp \tM,%ftl-bqj qtuJputpt 

language /fv^*-» p—pp"**- • 
large «<&*-» p%^.fpAu»^t 

lark uspmymx 

late ««-£.« 

to laugh ty*«»^£_, pA^tugj 

law o/»4Vi 

lazy *-/L> «?f*r*« 

lead ^«#«^«#|» • 

leader —m.u»f%mpq. % »^-*^s m ld t 

leaf «* f *.- , /**r/* « 

to learn -»^pbi_% m.«««tr^« 

leather 4«"^A* 

left J«^< 

lesson ^«t«# t ^mJlup % 

letter l»«»«fi«4* 5^/1. «»«««. i 

library f/i«Mw*<A> 9 Jutm»k%ut$^m$pu/it % 

life (£-«#&£ ♦ — leSS "«*»4 irmyji$% x 



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Vocabulary. 



191 



to lift #/• 4£va %h L % 

light tf7». ptpbi.* to — en #«-/- 

to like mlui»p^pi_ t »[»rb[j 

like tr«/a»^»i «*£«« 

lily int-fiAt 

limb •»««»» TCpuqjt 

linen ^p-u/h . — s tffrf aAff frf£fc t 

to linger mlrml»««#£_ f j^^^qbij "*-- 

lion utn.pu^t 

literature inutnlr%ui^pnt.p-ptJh f ^£~ 

piuQu$iiua-P-ft*& t 

little ^sAi.* ftp?* 
to live «"yi»Al» fb~bbu 
lively —ilwyJ-, ^«y*-«f«.t 
load f»fr«-» ^V^PM 1 
loaf ^f ««Wt t 

lone wn.uf%Afiii , i^bu*lj Jfrtyhmtyt 

long fyj"^* i*f. frfj-v* 

to look T»»obLs — about for "/» »- 

fcfr^, tfibuin-ki^, — like %Aibfi[j 

Lord (8*/») U < " wwt - ttr ** «»4t» "*- 
love «4r* to — -tc^L.* — song 

lugg a g e #■*•*•• *?/£» to»^t««»/»«"«»^ » 

M. 

machine i/^M^* 

mad %ut»nqu$&- 1 

maid, —en fay-i op^np^t 

to make zb^U ^U — wa y 

TfurJpuy puthut^j 

mamma «^/»A4* 

man Ju$pig.t 

manner 4*/»«y » A^ M '* r ««»i • — s £"/».£ * 

many 2f w « , » > put^JSu[9-/n- . how — ? 

map wzfauvfasw 

mare i?»»lpfrh * 

market £*•«-{«••/« 

mast i«^«/*« 

master «*»t/»» futp4u»u[lru§» tftup^ 

u^hin . to — tlb*^Lj m tl" uu l^ rm ^Lj 

mate g^k^t* 

matter ty*P» JmpJfAi, fat 
means «^£«ar» i*r«t « 
meat «^«« ^/»««»J««-/» » 
medal i^u$qpu,tr% 



medicine t-*^ 
menagerie ^ 



merchant £«rifiwut{Mtfc t 

metal &—$utu 

mighty {ffft* 

milk 4—f*. clotted — «/ai*»*.fc. 

to — W»*l« 
mill —q?rhe • — er u*qop(?uitu% < 
mind «#«vm foyimmvf y joJ-tupnu^ 

P-fn.% » tO UI%UUI[_l 

minister t^tu^utoiikuy , %tufcimp—p» 

prime — %u»fuuipuip—uibu$ t 
minute <-yi»tfr««»*t !»««*£« 
mistake »h m c* to — — Au 
Mister (= Mr.) 4|wg»»l (= «!.)« 
Mistress (<= Mrs.) Sbkt %t 

tO mix jtwwiW^, qm%i.kij 
tO mOCk Srmngtkgj, ^kf%kfj 

money j#»""f*f •«••»# t 

month «•»•#•»! 

monument jfa——u*4u$piuhi b»p-*v 

moon £«i-»/ilrt 

morn, — ing «■#«.«■»«. o«. good — 

*««tA £»• « 
morrow, to — <«»ic» 
mortal »Hu^mi»$ugnu % 
mother «%/•• — in-law {tum.p $ 

motion imp+muJ*t 
mountain /*•■-» 
to mourn »ft"»£..» 

mOUth pbpm%i 

to move i-fp+bu «*%*/_* j mL i*U 
to mow $W*£_t 4>"»i!hj 

Mr. (= mister) «|. (== •j-»/mA)« 
much ^«»"» ♦ how — Sp£uf t 

multitude mJpnfri, p»f afc./tyct , 
d-uqni[mt.pif.t 



N. 



•V 1 



flrwft... 



name «»li»*-t»* 
narrow *^« 
nation «»i* • — ality 

native &H* 

navy 1»un.ui—npiri 

near «/*«»* 

necessary t«»ffrc»/» i {«»/•{ o*c«*|> t 

neck ^f^i ^mpmlnj* — lace */*»»- 

needle «««A t . — case —utfuiiMi * 



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192 



Vocabulary. 



neighbour w»*A. wifo* 
nephew ^i^-p»p^% j>km.np^.fit 
nest p«/fc* 
new *»*»i» # p-wpiTt 

next $bt*b*. but[_, ^bu$tu^uy % kfo * 

niece k^popau^ffi^ , 4t^ rm - u, %tti t 
night *&**•• mid — ffc« ffcfy' 
°y — thh-t* good— f fcfy 

Nile "ijfrgMfs 

no *^. — longer »^ £t« f «■*/_ L* • • 

• — matter fb««w £»«-ty < 

noble rnqh/H., w^W*^ u,% f £*friTi 

noise M#^A«.f, ««^af^««ft 

noon f&ao/is 

north ^t"- u b n ' — em — **yA*" 

nose ^pi 

note i>£«ul. ±u,%op- nt _ &[,,_%, ^uip*. 

tO notice ^mb^ mtrqk^ittjfiih^t 

noun u*i»««-lr t «.^««£Mftr t 
novel 4£*y» W/n»^i 
now {£«&«» ^/<fiTi 
number fty«- . to — p--ub L i 



0. 

oak iu*qi*[,t 

obedient ^Jw^mA^, £/?*-* 

to obey ^ >u 'i^?A/_« 

Object <MiL<M/ff icy • ircy«fM»«uf s 
tO offend ^utfutumb^t 

often j»s0iCu»/u f fun* uiUfusiTt 

Old Hfif ^/^t $nuspfy>mm. — en 

$[uH[kJ} • — man Mrp*L.%fc % 
olive-tree Aftp-blfit 
open p—0 . to — puthut^t 
orange fc«-Y»/rt»£« 
order ^-$p^{uit.npmt.p-pt.%)^ cyu#w 

snmt-kp, utmuiplCiuh . tO — ^i 1 ***— 
«/Zh^^_. UMy»«ff £{_. in — to $«*»- 
•iiupt 

orphan »/»f»« 
other —-pfcij *%t-u* 

tO Owe upupiafii_f ufuspin*ul^»u% p{t*"l_f 

OWn ««1bitrMf^«wtr i jiUUtUL.^ »tO 

frt-pitffhk^ ub^ut^tuitbg^. [unuutm*- 

OX *^i 



p. 

page 4rf.» fy**». JiuXtnutufrtu 
to paint *4-»/t^ f ***/■{*£_' — er 
*f-rfc_- — ing MtW^*'* 

l0bp%u»putpmi-P-[n.1i. %Q uap i 

pair TO f • 

palace «f«i£UM» f i—uuipiaA*j> t 

papa {"y/'M* 
paper p-—-q&-t 
parcel 4-/m»/»« 

pardon !»*/»««. «/\ p-mq**.p-ftLu . to — 
**■/•*!.• to as k, beg — Ibpm^j* 

fn%^plr L i 

parents *%«££• 
parlour tyi-p—lmjt 
part •/&»« • — icle — tyf » 
passion Mv» 
patience ^(/ml^^i 

tO pay ^Cutpk^j $u*uwa.0U$hku 
peace luuti^utqmiLp-pLu , ^uiu^fiumi 

pear «»*t»W . — tree — b%fi t 

peasant ^ft^q^st l 

pen ti»bi_» — cil Jlumfru, . — holder 

W£"t m Lr — knife ^//» » 
pepper •^^•Y^t 1 
to perch p-mm-fa 
perfect ^—uwwpbutit 
permission fyutJusu , Py^mumc «. 

person WW. — age — X—umpm*.*. 

physician ^Pii» 

piaster q.ut$b\uA t tr ^ r »- Ll 

picture ■yuuaffy % 

piece fanpt 

pig A.- t « 

pigeon wi-t-lfit 

place «»^t_» to plain ybmbqbu 

plain £.«*»£*». ^u»pP $ fTl.* 

plant ««>«>clff * to — utit^bf_t 

play ^*«^_. to — ftutqiuf^, to — 

the piano f.a»£t»«#4 wbbjj 
to please $«•*>/_» ^-oCbghb^t 
pocket t[.ptutn%, — book fptuuAp 

poet /uh1iiii«w^| •y«t,£rjwt 
pole pkt-bm.) Xmmj 

polite 4—futgwfufp i 

poor w^^MfMfy fmbijtf, ^£ry-: 

portrait JM»«j.«iA«v^/f , ^«««»{V' 



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Vocabulary. 



193 



])OSt uni.p$uiuq.ujty . if.(iflp • Anq_. 

Of'flCC tmtifwLiutnnaJh t 

pound j>-2_* tfr-i 

praise q*q*b-ut. to — 5F--^/_» 

preacher ^uipnqp^j 

precious p-tubf—qf/kt 

to prefer uu»fr,p%utpbu 

pretty -frpntJh, utqnt^npx 

price f/*i tup^^t 

pride ^*qtuputnufrf-paAi s 

priest j>ui$uii$tuj y jMni-piTi 
prince fejuuib* — ss »«-#»« 
printer tntqiuqpfaj 
printing tniqtuqpmt.P'pi.% , 

prize dpfftul$uil[ . tO q%iu^winkf^s 

\n , OgreSSjwn.utgutiffnfin.fl[iL.'b , qtup*. 

tj.uinnL.iT i 
pr011liS6 fnnu$nnuiT t tO — [nnumuj*. 

uuti, fun itp inuti t 

proverb «*«.«#*» 
prudent fun^biTt 
Psalm U«"2«/«Mt 

tO publish $pu*$nu*piuQbfj 

punctually #£•» «#«. $£«#, ^2.q-t> f - » 

tf uti/tuu^ut^nup-huji/p t uiittlpkut : 

to punish Mf,umJh/_t 
]>urse j>nu*fji 

Q. 

queen p*uqnt.<Zf,t 
queer «t»//««A^«f^ » 
question ^mp^nuiT^ fubnppi 

quick uiputq . — ly if*n^P n^ fi u ^ 
quiet ^uJbtg.iMtp$f. t uthfutpd-t 

quince -bp^i-fa 

qilite /A*»^A^» pn^npn^fiht 

quiver q-"q?*i_i utupun.(n_t 

R. 

rabbit rt*M»f«7»i 

race w^ ubpnu%q. • uip^utu t 
radiant f»i.iri»^iiy^, tquylutn_t 

raging f«#«w«f^At 

ram uiu&pbu* to — uAtApkuk^ 

boW i-fftuS-uA i 

ram A*«yt 

I'are ^utqnuuiqi^tq^ ^uitinutunp'i-tni 
lay TCuin.iuq.utf [9- 1 

razor «#*£/£ * 

Elementary Armenian Grammar. 



to reach <«ml»^j 

to read ^m»pn.u»u 

to receive ^y»t^, uutuihuttx 

red f/uipJpp. — breast fapt/pu,^ 

to reject dhp+hu 
religion ipohgt 
to remain 8uu$u 
to repair %«pnq.bf t 

report utbqb^utqpp , ufutjpJ-fitJu i 

to resemble uifuihfc 

respect j—pq-fyp* to — j-vi^l- 

fully jutpqtultng t 

rest ^uAtqftuut . tO ^utuquutuiutuii 

return *[bpuj^,u r A , to — t[h c ,u^ 

n..iun3iu»i_, fbputq.utp&'hbit 

reward i[utpAu»tnpnu[3/nJbt 
ribbon «* «MY«««-£ir • 

rich ^uMpnuMttt) ifnfut 

ridiculous ^[i^utqb^ t 

Tigllt n*-qfiq_. m'bufuu,^, utf_ . to 1)6 

[tputt-nuuft mJufiltiu/t 

ling tiiutnui%{t t oq^t 

ripe ^w«wi-1i». mi — ut^utnt 
river ^«i 

tO rob fynqntqtnbf. 1)61* utuut^. 

qu»ff * 
roof utuiufigt 

rOOin wAlr^ttf^* */#&7 : 

rose »/f»/»T • bush — £ty t 

rule ftwfcwir. to — bif^^L 1 



Sad inpinna..iT t utfunup t 

saddle p-utJpt 

Sail utn.utqutum • tO — %u$$..bi, utm. 
n.utqutuin puthut^* — or uutuutnutfa 
%utuutq t 

salt «^» 

salutation putphi., nqfu/h. to — 

putpbub^ nqfuLuhit 

salvation fofaup-fiMJi, t 
same fcryfci 

sanctuary upputmbqft 
sand «•#•_«#£_. — y — »t.i»f t 
satisfied f«£i ^«»m»j«A- » 
sausage ^pibk* 
to say £»*■£_». 

School tWlt* boy nnqpngutfjuth , 

uijVuQbpui • h0USe q.OfpiuinnL.'u . 

— master fuipd-uttqkun 

in 



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m 



Yodkbiil&rv. 





to see 

to sack _ 

neJo/mi ^s_< 

to seL i # *i_ - _ 

to send *H*z_« jf*^. 




sorrow # / »» 

uoati* g | — en* — ■ 

u» spetk ^" #l * 
word sinni -rft £-if 4 

*>riii£; 



shepherd 

to shine 

2>Lip *— •-* 

shirt 2— ftt : 

shoe *-jH — ni*ker _ _ 

2>hopfr *■ P- — kt*j*si — 

short |« f^ 

shot l^ i l » — ~* 

shovel p+x 

to *hm rf*L' * ■ V'U 

*»ick S ^ 1 ■ *! •» — ••* 

sxtanoe i^j-^^ka 

silk *■ ^l - — worse 

silver »q 1 »^3 

simple TTl* l a t j 

sin *w — »« * l * *r- 

sinew ■ Hl 1 i« 

to sing V*±L — *r 4 **fcj 

sir «-<^* ▼"*■** 

sist** «r* — itt-Uw — ^ 
to sat v 3ow*i x * ii " i fr « 
si** v—*. **~/*>*V* 
skihui V ^ ■! . r , | - iy ■ t * 
sky M> t f| > 
sUv* *4f^« 
$£k* ^■■■^* 
saauW +^fr«» to — +i^ | 
wv *K** to— 4J^**:< 



s*n*r* ^* 

STJiHW 1 * 1 

>ock 



■4-"* St lit 3 




*r*i_* 



^u:v 1#H < fc" |- to — #--; 



swond P—~r* iii nf * 



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Vocabulary. 



195 



tail —fpf "i-u 
tailor ibpAmbi 

tall ftuip&p(ui$uiumt[) % hp^tt»jh(ui^ui^ 

UUl/f)t 

tea p-fyt 

to teach nntfpbj%&i_i «"-«*•»«-#«"*£/_ • 

— er Ht-umLijfoi iLtunuitnnL t 

to thank g?*p$tufai_ tiu-u 

there <»t»« 

thing /luA* 

to think {unptfo faphrk^i 

thirsty *u»/m«-. — ^* 

thorn *fi—-i_t 

throne *««{* 

to throw Ibuihf . — down «»tt*iyt«^ 

thimder npntnnt.tr, tO — npntniti^ 

— Storm tfinPnpfiQ, Jf'f'M t 
tlJXlQ'f'Wu'uJhuttyi uitnbli • — $ uAtniutTt 
tool a-np&fyi i 

tooth •»4* L «Y/ X 

top n~uin.»v[3 f l^uitnutp . ^#»i t 
tOWn Jttunuqf , tatuuAt 
toy fumntu/fiftt 

to translate Pu»pn.tfuihb^t 
translation Puipn.JuihnLppL.'h » 
to travel Tfu*Jpnpig.bi_. — ler K*u#«/L 

pnpn., nunbunp t 

tread ^-yi^i ♦ ^nfuk^t 
treasure $«»%*» 
tree *-«»*t. * 

tO tremble n.nnuif , P pP tuut/ j 

true TCgfinpfiui, ^tuututnuiplnri 

truth TfiiRuptnuuPftuu i 

tO try £fl»1r«r£_ v tfrnpAb^t 

tulip fa^of^t 

tum H-tupX , tutnnjtn* in — tguipiLuiL t 

type tnfiiu , opfihutfy t 



to utter *«#«. 

n^tuutJbit 



b L , utp 



A*i 



u 



umbr 



U. 

umbrella ^ntfuiunjft 

Uncle ^°/»^7f«^//»f tibpbnpiufp t 

unhappy ~*xbpfiu%M% 

tO Unite J^mgukfj 

USe oq.nL.tn, a.npbtubnL.p fctX , ftu$ , 
— ful o/LtniuQutp , — leSS «t»t»«jf£m f 

ttMU9tt»$ t 

USUal ^m»»m»/»«mJ , mmjnptufa'u , — ly 
unifnptupttip t 



V. 

Vain niuuiuju , u1*uiufiup& i 

valiant •£ M »£(«"i»A) * 

Vally ^ntffitnt 

veal ^nppyiifii 
velvet p-utuftzj 
verb |i^» 
very fufiutm 

Vice ifngni-P fitJu t 

village tt'-'L 1 

Vine npP-{tutnnu%lf) t 

vinegar #tuutufux 

Violent /UrciLlr, uttmtnfi^ nL.tt-n.fiti t 

Violet JuAnL-itu^t 

Virtue mm.*ip//*miJ9-fiLut 

virtUOUS utn.tu^fihf, t 

Visit uygbinLp-fiLu . tO — tufjfbfb^ 

— Or tujgbfnL. i 

voice A«^»« 
volcano 4pt-pnt-f»t 
volume ^M#m#ffi« 

VOW nt-juuiy funuutnL.iT t 

voyage ^utJp n pn„uPfnJh t 

w. 

wade ff«-/»A *t£fc jp-iku 

tO Wait nufutu&i_t 

Walk intnym, rCbt/k[fy» . to .£«*- 

Wall intuin t nptTt 

Wailt "j(r«^pt QutpomnL.p-fiL.'u » to — 
nLub^j ufkttfp ntJubltuifj 

war tntuuibptuniT. man of — «/2w/»*. 

uttnuuiL. t 

Warm tnuyi* tO tniatpg%bf_» tnuif*. 

%uiit 

to wash [nLtuu 
wasp «^*«#ft 

Watch n.ptuuih[t tt-uiJlugyg. tuui*. 
^tatnut% f f.£«» . tO — ^»^/_. ^~ 
«»£y t luui^ugiaiubit 

water f mt -p» to — t p ^U m ^- mm -^i_* 

— fowl £/»<«»*- . — ing-pot j/»lr^ 

Wave ««{/!£ f f «*£•*( • tO — tntumtu^ 
1*f»(_l &ifittii) &-w&-w%ptt 

way XusJfrvjj. <$£»j* fA-f«f * 

18* 



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194 



Vocabulary. 



Science fpamma.pl'ptX » 

scissors J|fM»«f« 
sculptor u*hf.pl t wf.»p& i 
sea *»£• 
season ^«»^««Ji 

tO See mkmhtrgj 

tO Seek +%mm.iri_, »pm%ir L t 

seldom j*l*i_ «»fcf.«»«/\ ^.»«-fc «m-/#4£> 

tO Sell &uipitrj_* ifuriCtu m.kf_t 

to send i»et*U Jt^L* — word 

sentence %mfum$q.un$nt-p3-paJii » 

to sew 4-t^l* 
shame —Jo[B-, %utpiuimpfyi 
sharp »»*•/» t 4*w/»w«-J« 
to shave *»*£/*£ » 
shawl j4*A» L~L l 
sheath «j««m«*«»1»i 

Sheep mdtmpt 

shepherd <»<£«-« 

to shine 4"Vitu 

ship *«•*- « 

shirt 2f"yA4' 

shoe f^f • — maker t«2f tM i <M r* 

shop juutbma-P . — keeper — «?«»*» * 

short (w/itfi 

Shot 1»/M»1»U#M.«M- » 

shovel J*A« 
to shut f »£*/_' #«■»♦*/_» 
aick ^t-u»%if. , — ««ti 
silence [m.mup-p*.%t 

Silk iOrmt»igm . — WOl'lU £*/#m*«Ti 

silver —pl—p-i 

simple <Y* w /*f_* 'y*"/ 1 f^4 M ' 

sin «*i# . — ner 4kg«»L »f . to — 

sincere «wi4*£*« 

sincerity «Af frf***./*^.* • 

to sing bp+bi_* — er */»f A*_t */»«•• 

sir *«4:i»» «^««|»«»l»i 

sister .*w —in-law «•»«»/_• **/»« 

to sit (down) 1»«««A/j 

size ^o#»«wf | iik&uLp-fiL.%t 

Skilful iC-ipinutp, ^utpui^i 

sky ^/*4^ l " a *^" a * a ^ >r i* * 

slave **/»A« 

Slice m^mmtmm.% 

smile +mfr— . to — J-fufiu 
snow *£«-* • to — Api.%ku 

SOap O^MTMLt 

Soft Ja»f »*.£_! iputtftm^i 



soldier ^jXn^mpt 

some 4>bt. *£• ^"^b *£*• *** u " *fe* 

son "ctb • **->"*£ < 

song tyf • — ster frpttL' 

sorrow 4&*»> 

soul $•»*£» 

south ^uipwi. . — ern — ^/ft i 

sparrow tf1rifiM.fi 

to speak £»•«£/_« 

spirit «f£t <*»f£« 

spoon 75f «■»£_« 

Spring £««#/tiM-1» . tw^pApuiflr . fMtytu.. 

IfUff S 

Square ^uim.m^m^mp . ^pusu^utputlfi 
Stable mfunm., f.««Tt 

star utuutHt 

station {^■mIm 

statue u>plm%t 

statute *»/»tV» fu«fc*l»i 

to stay (ItIim^i 

steam i»tt* — -ship £*fto««*. » 

Stick ^MfLltffMflri 

Still $M#t»fl.U»|M». f»LILl 

stocking *•"-/_*?•*/ « 
stone ^««/»* 
stork utputfpu 
strawberry */««/« 
street ^"VS 1 
student *»«-«»««l»«^« 

studious Ki.m»i.a*«t/" 

study *m-*»»«-«T. to — **--u,%p L , 

Mtrpmbj^i 

stupid —*im*-2J 
sublime ^»*«T» 
to succead j—t-qhL* «/"»£?/"/*/_* 

SUCCeSS jutfrnqm^p-piXt 

tO Suffer A*VL *»««£_. mgmmpti- f/tfr^i 

sugar lutgwpt 
summer «"£»«. s 

SUn «•»/»*«-» #W|»4rf.«#Jl 

to sup pyp-p^L' — P er ^M/'Ais * 
sure »[*t$i$ui$ • — ly — uiptup t 
swallow A^**i*.in»4 . to — J**-; 

to sweep •««-/*/_« 
sweet 4t—f*p* uppmLi$t 
sword p-*»-p, unLpt 



table »*2«»1». j^M* • M iA«- 

— Cloth mipm.mgt 



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Vocabulary. 



195 



tail n»f^i ^"jm 
tailor ig.bpAui^t 

tall pu»pAp(ut$ui—*Q) $ hp4uy%(ut$u*~ 

•- «» 
tea p-fyt 

tO teach mmjpkg\kij nt.unLijus%ki_ . 

er numni-gfciji ig.umuiu$nu t 

to thank ^p^utfuf^ £/g«7_* 

there $«^« 

thing /!«*%« 

to think fwr^f'U t—p^u 

thirsty *«#/»««-. — ^i 

thorn ^»*.£» 

throne f«»^ 

tO thrOW libuibf . — down miuiyui^ 
tllimder «/i»«t»«-«/\ tO — npnmiu^. 

— storm ifrnpnpfrti* ^ppH * 

time«^"»«'"'t' M »^» utmkfi * — £ UMhtfiutTt 

tool t-r&hg * 

tOOth avfiLagyt 

tOp If-UHf-tUp} t l(UtUIU$p . ^Itt t 

tOWn ^tvquqn UH-nAt 
toy tuiuquiikft t 

to translate puip+iiui%k^i 
translation A*"7»*« /2 »^'"-W'-*' « 
to travel iCiuJpmp^lrf_. — Jer tfu#«/l 

pnpn.% nM.nba.up t 

tread 4tiyi£i ♦ ^nfukj_t 

treasure ^o»W» 

tree *-«««.* 

to tremble ^»^«/» PpPn-tuf * 

true 7C^J!atp[iui , ^UH-tuiftiMipfiiTt 
truth Jffiiuiputna-P fit-% » 
tO try £«»1rM#^_ f ifinpAtr^t 

tulip ^««J««»^« 

turn tf.uipX , Hftniyuf in — ^u»pa.uit. t 

type utfitu 1 opphuity I 



u. 



w **t* 



umbrella ^w^f-Awj: 

Uncle ^opbigptyjp, Jbpbnpuyp t 

unhappy ~*\kpfu,%Mt 
to unite Jfiutjhbu 

USe o£»c«f f q.npbu»b$u.p fct3i * fui$, 
— f Ul ofututQutp , — leSS u»lrafl£m f 
uthtut^ t 

USUal {«Mravf«»f f mm/npat^uth . — ly 
nntfnptuptup t 



to litter tftun-lriji uvpmuiuuiubf, 
utuiinJbi t 



V. 



Vaill nt-utuju t itiiuittftuptS i 

valiant ^^l(^pp)t 
vally S—lb—i 
veal S-pp-trhftt 
velvet p-uit-pfj 
verb i»«^« 
very A»/t««»* 
vice ilhi*i-P fn.% t 
village tt'-'L 1 

Vine npP(iu$nniXI()i 

vinegar jtutgutfut 

Violent {twLM.tr, utunuiftk^^ nt.tf-n.fiht 

violet a/2ifl^*»i.9u»£ t 
virtue ««#«-«»|»Ai»*M-/!y^*.Y» » 
virtuous «»«-a<p/M^t 

Visit iujffb[mi-Pji$.% . to — u fl8 lr i tr U 

— Or uygbgnM. • 

voice *«•/*» t 
volcano ^p—pm-fai 
volume $uM»#f/i« 

VOW -t-fuui % funuufnt-tTt 
VOj'age TCufJpnpif.u$.Pfn.%t 

W. 

wade f?*-pb JhfM •P u 'l*L' 
to wait M«ya»»4g_i 

Walk tyutysn. \Xhtlbffig , to — •£«•»- 

Wall «flu»«»i »JiJ"i 

Wailt ifk*nj>y $ u*pou$nM-PpL% . to — 
na -lbU tu k"ff> tnJiifhaat/t 

war ^utu$kpuf^J*» man of — t/u»/i~ 

ttiuiitiUL. t 

warm «>>^* to — """yj^^L* •"•".p— 

to wash i*i.—u 
wasp «^*««f t 

Watch ^pm^utfifi 4ara/Swj«fj. lyin^ 
<to«y Mft> f ^Mf . tO — ^«4fy_» ^A- 

water f ««-/»♦ to — £/»*£_» »«.»£*£_. 

— fowl £i»{«»«- . — ing-pot j£t»~. 

Wave ««/Ap » J»£«m J • tO — Mnmmw*. 

way XwJpuy. Jbl»d* t*P1* 

18* 



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196 



Vocabulary. 



weak u»t—p, u/b^opt 

Wealth ^-ipmmut.p-li$Jii , tkmfumu^ 
P-fiuls* — V "^-fai ^ujp$$t.utn t tlk— 
h-unftutpf^uttTt 

week 2. ut B ut P'^ koftltkuify i 
to weep i*»ij —ip—i « 
well —qki* /«•« • te^-v* 

white 'tirpiiuify , uiyjiututQ i 

whole utdp-nij jt<7«/>s 
wife tA^i 4*^4. t"i«"4/^* 
wild fe//»A ♦ 4ayi ,utl t ♦ "***——*•- ' 
will (r«««(p» J«t««4» — ing jo<fuii>^ 

{ui^tuiT) . — ingly 4""'*"/^ * 
wind $«£♦ — mill ^-nJ$uqutjj. fair 

%ufiuutnui»-mp ^i'i[_l 

Window ufUiUtt$L.^uiis i jnLUUSlflft-Utl 

wine tt % b % 

wing /*£*- ♦ P"-ti4! * 

wisdom ftiKumutuup-jitX % 

Wise pJIuumnt.%, — ly jiifi$»uuiu$-~ 
Pbiujpi 

to wish —-fkij f—i/iuitfa , uAH—i t 

Wit ^pp—Ufam « uputtQtin . ^uihtCtup t 

to wither £■/'*»«»/ • 

Without usn.tu%gt 
wolf *•#(.* 
woman f/&» i^M' 

WOmb npȣujhl 

to wonder ^«««/»«/«i«S»««^i <£/*««l»««^* 
wood 4"W" • "»*»«»«"«- • A* 

— pecker ifnyni/ntp » 
word /"««-♦ fang, /««-/»« 



wluli/i • 



work f */»* 1 ltp^*t»i»pt»-p-^iJL . to — 

H*p& irgj p u*%fij_t 

world u*z/uu»p$t 

worm ***£» "/»t-* 

worth —p^u»%lmt . — y wp<LuXfc t 

wound 4^/f£. to — i(frpui$-npkij 

to write ?/»*/_« 

wrong ujlifcpusu y ujuw^. to be — 



Y. 



Mipklfusis I 



year «»u#/i^ . — ly 

yellOW q.bqft%t 

yes ««/*•* 
yesterday A/ȣ(r* 
yoke £?«-*■ * 

yolk $wi-bPfi if.trijhai.0t 

young if-lm-tump . — man tppmu 

uuipn. t 

younger ^putuLpt 

youngest \pu»*»hpui^n{Li 

youth Jitiii^tit-P-fit-^* t «Y a " WM *^ i ^ r ( f "* 

P-fiL.% , trpfiutujuuipif nt-fd-jtM-l* t 

Z. 

Zeal iut/u$t*hA» bu-uAjq.. — ous - 

UiL.$»p , IfMtt 

zephyr ffr^<-«. 9 «^*^« 

Zigzag i-w«-i*.««-«flwt«-» oAtuujuinjut 

zone comfit ^tuJutpt 

ZOOlogy Qkltg.uAiuipushmi-P-fM-'iit 



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The press of the Mechitharistes, Vienna. 



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This book is a preservation photocopy. 

It was produced on Hammermill Laser Print natural white, 

a 60 # book weight acid-free archival paper 

which meets the requirements of 

ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (permanence of paper) 

Preservation photocopying and binding 

by 

Acme Bookbinding 
Cbarlestown, Massachusetts 

m 

1996 



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3 2044 036 508 299 



THE BORROWER WILL BE CHARGED 
AN OVERDUE FEE IF THIS BOOK IS 
NOT RETURNED TO THE LIBRARY ON 
OR BEFORE THE LAST DATE STAMPED 
BELOW. NON-RECEIPT OF OVERDUE 
NOTICES DOES NOT EXEMPT THE 
BORROWER FROM OVERDUE FEES. 

Harvard College Widener Library 
Cambridge, MA 021 38 (61 7) 4g5-241 3 




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